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School-Based Interventions : Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
 
Interventions for Inattention

Accommodations
  1. Define classroom expectations in positive terms

    Example:
    "Please sit down, get out your pencils and paper, and let's look at the board to find our first task."
  2. Practice (routinize) classroom procedures (particularly at the beginning of the year)

    Example:
    Adhere to a regular routine the first five minutes every day (all sit, get materials out, check the board for assignments, look to see what the teacher is preparing).
  3. Post and refer to classroom rules

    Example:
    Review and post classroom rules in a central location in the classroom. Periodically reference rules throughout the day and week especially during "challenging" classroom times (transitions, cooperative/team assignments etc).
  4. Provide the student with a written list of materials, or "steps" to refer to if he/she student forgets verbal instructions

    Example:
    Put a list of materials needed for class in the student's notebook.
  5. Give the student duplicate materials

    Example:
    Keep a set of classroom materials in the student's desk and another set at home in case essential items are forgotten.
  6. Affix materials to the student's desk

    Example:
    Keep regularly needed materials such as pencils attached to the student's desk where they cannot be misplaced.
  7. Provide organizational devices in the classroom

    Example:
    Use colored folders to distinguish math vs. reading vs. social studies work; use a clipboard to hold papers or current activities.
  8. Keep a sample model of a correctly formatted paper for the student to refer to

    Example:
    Keep formatted (even laminated) paper showing where name, date, etc., should appear on the student's assignments.
  9. Have the student use mnemonic strategies to remember steps and organize information

    Example:
    Provide a mnemonic such as "SLAB CATS" (Sit, Look At Board, Copy All Tasks Silently) to help the student organize for class.
  10. Have the student employ visuals to remind him/her of problem-solving steps, story parts, etc.

    Example:
    Provide the student with an index card with math steps written down, or with sentence starters for each sentence in a paragraph to be written.
  11. Provide an advance organizer to direct the student to attend to particular information as he/she reads the text

    Example:
    Provide student with a "concept map" to remind him/her of the assignment ("classify the animals by size, diet, and geography"), so that the student is directed to salient information in the text.
  12. Demonstrate attention before instruction begins

    Example:
    Clarify steps to demonstrate attention, such as "eye contact, lips together, arms still."
  13. Have the student use visuals to identify key points in the text

    Example:
    Have the student code important passages in the text with colored tabs; or mark key information with a "sticky note" or pencil drawn "star."
  14. Devise signals for instructions

    Example:
    Devise classroom language or signals to increase attention ("[Student name], this is a direction" or "Class, this is a direction".)
  15. Have the student demonstrate understanding of directions

    Example:
    Have the student repeat directions back to the teacher.
  16. Provide both oral and written directions

    Example:
    Write directions on the board and also present directions orally.
  17. Create a "memory-friendly" classroom

    Example:
    Publicly (on the board or posters) post essential information so that the student can easily reference the information (daily schedule, in-class assignments, step-by-step summary of tasks for completing academic problems, etc.).
  18. Cue the student that a question will be for him/her

    Example:
    "[Student name], this question will be yours". Establish a routine that if the student doesn't know the answer, others will then be called on so that everyone listens.
  19. Provide check-in points during lessons

    Example:
    "Raise your hand when you finish the first three problems, and we'll come by to check them."
  20. Have the student show his/her organization scheme before attempting a task

    Example:
    Allow the student to describe the basic plan of his/her story before beginning to write.
  21. Have the student exchange papers for editing/review with appropriate peers

    Example:
    Divide students into pairs and have them exchange their completed assignments. Instruct students to rate the quality of their peer's work and to share their written evaluations with each other. Before collecting work, encourage students to make changes to their own assignments in response to peer feedback.
  22. Have the student use a timer to clarify time for tasks and to signal transitions

    Example:
    Use a timer in the classroom to signal three more minutes, or for the student to see how much longer he/she needs to work before the next task.
  23. Provide untimed or extended time for tests or assignments

    Example:
    Allow the student to work at his/her own pace, even "rest", so he/she can demonstrate all that he/she has learned.
  24. Provide information in small chunks, with check-in to ensure the student understands the material

    Example:
    Break down tasks into one-two minute chunks, or steps, and check that the student understands before adding more information or subsequent steps.
  25. Pair preferred, easier tasks with more difficult tasks

    Example:
    Allow the student to color or draw after completing 10 math problems.
  26. Seat the student in a location that limits distractions

    Example:
    Put the student in a seat closer to the carpeted (quieter) area, apart from distractions (such as the door where people are walking by/in/out).
  27. Provide the student with multi-sensory cues signaling to return to on-task behavior

    Example:
    Devise with the student, ahead of instructional time, signals to return to work (point to eyes, tap the student's desk).
  28. Assign specific roles or responsibilities to the student when working on group tasks

    Example:
    Clarify the student's particular task to complete for a group project (rather than allow other students to compensate).
  29. Diminish external distractions

    Example:
    Minimize noise in the classroom by using headphones, tennis balls on chair legs, or rugs.
  30. Use a planning calendar to chart homework assignments/completions

    Example:
    For school and home, provide a chart for the student to check off when assignments are completed and turned in.
  31. Reward successes during the school day

    Example:
    Reinforce classroom and recess successes with stickers, points toward desired activities (take a special book home, eat with a peer, choose the game).
  32. Use a daily progress book or email between school and parents

    Example:
    Send a small book or email between school and home to keep parents and teacher aware of the student's daily progress, and of any events that might influence the student's attention.
  33. Invite a parent to serve as a "homework coach"

    Example:
    Have a parent meet with the student each night to review assignments, set up a plan for completing the homework, monitor the student's actual time spent doing homework, and review finished work for completeness and quality.
  34. Have peer teams check homework assignments and create team scorecards

    Example:
    Put students into teams, and allow teams to check each other's work; reward the students for team correcting, ensuring that each member gets correct answers.
  35. Use peer tutoring when appropriate

    Example:
    Identify peer mentors who can tutor the student or use a "peer buddy" to help the student ensure he/she has written down all assignments correctly and has the necessary materials.
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Specialized Instruction

  • Allow the student to receive instructional content in multiple modalities

    Example:
    Provide instructional content orally, in print, on compact disc, videotape, etc.
  • Use rhyme, rhythm, or music to remember academic content

    Example:
    Develop or use jingles, songs (alphabet song), or rhymes to help the student remember information.
  • Assign the student a staff member to help with organizational challenges

    Example:
    Assign one staff member to manage a group of students who have organizational challenges. At the start of each day, the staff member "checks in" with the students before they go to class (checks students' schedules, checks for necessary work materials, checks for missing items).
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