Recent Publications
(last 5 years)

Bobby Cherayil, MD

Christina S. Faherty, PhD

Alessio Fasano, MD

Verena Göbel, MD

Bryan P. Hurley, PhD

Beth McCormick, PhD

Hans-Christian Reinecker, MD

Hai Ning Shi, DVM, PhD

W. Allan Walker, MD


W. Allan Walker, MD


  1. Grave GD, Nelson SA, Walker WA, Moss RL, Dvorak B, Hamilton FA, Higgins R, Raju TNK.  New therapies and preventive approaches for necrotizing enterocolitis:  Report of a research planning workshop.  Pediatr Res 2007; 62:510-514.
  2. Broekaert I, Nanthaumar NN, Walker WA.  Secreted probiotic factors ameliorate enteropathogenic infection in zinc-deficient human Caco-2 and T84 cell lines.  Ped Res 2007; 62:139-144.
  3. Weng M, Huntley D, Huang I-F, Foye-Jackson O, Wang L, Sarkissian A, Zhou Q, Walker WA, Cherayil B, Shi HN.  Alternatively activated macrophages in intestinal helminth infection:  Effects on concurrent bacterial colitis.  J Immunol 2007; 179:4721-4731.
  4. Meng D, Newburg DS, Young C, Baker A, Tonokonogy SL, Sartor RB, Walker WA, Nanthakumar N.  Bacterial symbionts induce a FUT2-dependent fucosylated niche on colonic epithelium via ERK and JNK signaling.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 293:G780-G-787.
  5. Weng M, Walker WA, Sanderson IR.  Butyrate regulates the expression of pathogen-triggered IL-8 in intestinal epithelia.  Ped Res 2007; 62:542-546.
  6. Shi HN, Walker WA.  The role of TIM-3 in food allergy.  Gastroenterology 2007; 133:1723-1726.
  7. Wang L, Johnson EE, Shi HN, Walker WA, Wessing-Resnick M, Cherayil B. Attenuated inflammatory responses in hemochromatosis reveal a role for iron in the regulation of macrophage cytokine translation.  J Immunol 2008;  181:2723-2731.  PMID:  18684963
  8. 8. Lu, L, Bao Y, Khan A, Goldstein AM, Newburg DS, Quaroni A, Brown D, Walker WA. Hydrocortisone modulates cholera toxin endocytosis by regulating immature enterocyte plasma membrane phospholipids.  Gastroenterology 2008; 135:185-193.   PMID:  18456000
  9. Chen C-C, C C-H, Lin T-Y, Shi H, Walker WA.  Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus on Citrobacter rodentium colitis:  The role of dendritic cells.  Pediatr Res 2009, 65:169-175.  PMID:  19262293
  10. Lu L, Khan A, Walker WA.  ADP-ribosylation factors regulate the development of CT-signaling in immature human enterocytes.  AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2009; 296(6):G1221-G1229.  PMID:  19359423
  11. Rautava S, Nanthakumar NN, Dubert-Ferrandon, Lu L, Rautava J, Walker WA.  Breast milk transforming growth factor-β2 specifically attenuates IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses in the immature human intestine via a SMAD6 and ERK-dependent mechanism.  Neonatology 2010; 99:192-201.  PMID: 20881435
  12. Lu L, Li T, William G, Petit E, Walker WA.  Hydrocortisone induces changes in gene expression and differentiation in immature human enterocytes.  Am J Phys- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiol 2011; 300:G425-G432.
  13. Nanthakumar N, Meng D, Goldstein AM, Zhu W, Lu K, Uauy R, Llano A, Claud EC, Walker WA.  The mechanism of excessive intestinal inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis:  An immature innate immune response.  Plos One 20ll; 6:(3):E17776.doi:10.1371/
  14. Su C, Cao Y, Kaplan J, Zhang M, Conroy M, Walker WA, Shi H.  Duodenla helminth infection alters barrier function of the colonic epithelium via adaptive immune activation.  Infec Immun 2011; 79(6):2285-2294.
  15. Chen CC, Lin WC, Kong MS, Shi HN, Walker WA, Lin CY, Huang CT, Lin YC, Jung SM, Lin TY. Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue. Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 30:1-12.
  16. Rautava S, Lu L, Nanthakumar NN, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Walker WA. TGF-β2 induces maturation of immature human intestinal epithelial cells and inhibits inflammatory cytokine response induced via NF-κB pathway.  J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2012; 54(5):630-638.
  17. Cahill CM, Walker WA.  The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in intestinal inflammation.  J Signal Transduction, vol. 2012, Article ID 358476, 13 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/358476.
  18. Foye O, Huang I-F, Chiou, C, Walker WA, Shi HN.  Early administration of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or probiotic inulin attenuates pathogen-mediated intestinal inflammation and Smad 7 cell signaling.  FEMS Immunol & Med Microbiol. 2012;  Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00978.x
  19. Ganguli K, Meng D, Rautava S, Lu L, Walker WA*, Nanthakumar N*.  Probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis by modulating enterocyte genes that regulate innate immune-mediated inflammation.  Am J Phys: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2012 (in press). (*shared senior authorship)
  20. Meng D, Zhu W, Walker WA*, Nanthakumar N*.  Colonizing gram negative bacteria achieve colonic fucosylation via activation of novel fucosylated TLR-4:  A mechanism for colonization resistance.  Plos One 2012 (under review).  (*shared senior authorship)


  1. Walker, WA.  Mechanisms of action of probiotics.  Clin Infec Dis 2008; 46:S87-S91.  PMID:  18196954
  2. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg DS, Walker WA.  Immune functions and mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.  In:  Handbook of Prebiotics.  Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (eds) CRC Press.  pp. 115-141, 2008.
  3. Claud EC, Walker WA.  Bacterial colonization, probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.   In:  J Clin Gastro 2008; 42:S46-S52.  PMID:  18520617
  4. Conroy ME, Walker WA.  Intestinal immune health.  Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program 2008; vol. 62, p. 107-121 “Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children”.   PMID:  18626196
  5. Vassallo M, Walker WA.  Neonatal microbail flora and disease outcome.  Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatric Program 2008; 61:211-224.   PMID:  18196954
  6. Ruemmele FM, Bier D, Marteau P, Rechkemmer G, Bourdet-Sicard R, Walker WA, Goulet O.  Clinical evidence for immunomodulatory effect on probiotic bacteria.  J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2009; 48:126-141.  PMID:  19179874
  7. Rautava S, Walker WA.  Probiotics 101.  In:  Probiotics in Pediatric Medicine.    Michail S, Sherman P (eds) Humana Press 2009; pp 41-52.
  8. Sherman PM, Cabana M, Gibson G, Koletzko BV, Neu J, Veereman-Wauters G, Ziegler EE, Walker WA.  Potential roles and clinical utility of prebiotics in newborns, infants, and children:  Proceeding from a Global Summit meeting in New York City, June 27-28, 2008. J Pediatrics 2009; 155:S61-S70.  PMID: 19840609 
  9. Walker WA.  Functional proteins in human milk:  Role of infant health and development.   J Pedaitr 2010; 156(2)Suppl 1:  S1-S2.  PMID: 20105658
  10. Walker WA. Breast milk as the gold standard for protective nutrients.  J Pedaitr 2010; 156(2)Suppl 1:  S3-S7.  PMID:  20105662


  1. Sanderson IR, Walker WA.  The role of TLRs/Nods in intestinal development and homeostasis.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 292:G6-G10.
  2. Martin CR, Walker WA.  Intestinal immune defences and the inflammatory response in necrotizing enterocolitis.  Seminar in Fetal & Neonatal Med 2007; 11:369-377.
  3. Newburg DS, Walker WA.  Protection of the neonate by the immune system of developing gut and of human milk.  Ped Res 2007; 61:2-8.
  4. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2007; 23(6): 644-646.
  5. Rautava S, Walker WA.  Commensal bacteria and epithelial cross talk in the developing intestine.  Current Gastroenterology Reports 2007; 9:385-393.
  6. Martin CR, Walker WA.  Probiotics:  Role in pathophysiology and prevention in necrotizing enterocolitis.   Seminar in Perinatology 2008; 32:127-137.  PMID:  18346537
  7. Claud EC, Walker WA.  The intestinal microbiota and the microbiome.  In Gastroenterology:  Neonatology Questions and controversies.  Ed.  Josef Neu, Richard Polin.  Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.  2008, pp.73-92.
  8. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2008; 24(6): 698-700.  PMID:  19122518
  9. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg D, Walker WA.  Part I – Prebiotics: New medicines for the colon.  Nutr Today 2008; 43(6):245-249.
  10. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg D, Walker WA.  Part II– Prebiotics:  Health benefits for the colon.  Nutr Today 2008 2008; 44(2):85-91.
  11. Rautava S, Walker WA.  Breatfeeding – An extrauterine link between mother and child.  Breastfeeding Medicine 2009; 4(1):3-10.  PMID:  19292608;
    PMCID:  PMC2932545
  12. Conroy ME, Shi HN, Walker WA.  The long-term health effects of neonatal microbial flora.  Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009; 9:197-201.  PMID:  19398905
  13. Floch MH, Walker WA, Guandalini S, et al.   Recommendation for probiotics use - 2008.  J Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 42(Suppl 2):S104-S108.  PMID:  18542033
  14. Walker WA.  Bacterial colonization, probiotics and the development of intestinal host defense.   Functional Food Reviews vol. 1(1), Spring 2009; 13-19.
  15. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2009; 25(6): 491-495.
  16. Walker WA, Sherman P, Shneider BL, Cohen, M, Barnard J.  State of research in pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition:  2010 and beyond. Gastroenterology 2010; 138:411-416.  PMID:  20025876
  17. Gareau MG Sherman PM, Walker WA.  Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease.  Nature Rev: Gastroenterol & Hepatol 2010; 7:503-514.  PMID: 20664519
  18. Szajewska H, Guandalini S, Morelli L, Van Goudoever JB, Walker WA.  Effect of Bifidobacterium aimalis supsp lactis Supplementation in preterm infants: A systematic review of randoizedcontrolled tirals.  J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2010; 51(2):203-209. PMID:  20543719
  19. Walker WA.  50 years ago in the Journal of Pediatrics – (Diseases of nutrition deficiency of children in South India – A review of some salient conditions (Gopalan C., J. Pediatr 1960; 57:89-100).  J Pediatr 2010; 157:126.
  20. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2010; 26(6)543-546.
  21. Claud EC, Walker WA.  Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.  In:  Probiotics:  A Clinical Guide (eds) Floch M, Kim AS. Slack Inc. 2010; Chapter 12, pp. 181-194.
  22. Neu J, Walker WA.  Necrotizing enterocolitis.  N Engl J Med 2011; 364:255-264
  23. Kaplan JL, Shi H, Walker WA.  The role of microbes in developmental immunologic programming: Convergence of the Barker and Hygiene Hygiene Hypotheses.   Pediatr Res 2011, 9(6):465-472.
  24. Chen CC, Walker WA.  Clinical applicatins of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders in children.  Natl Med J India 2011; 24(3):21-27.
  25. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2010; 27(6):543-536.
  26. Forchielli L, Walker WA.  Omega-3-fatty acids:  Impact on cognitive development and inflammation.  Nutrition Today 2011; 46(5):224-233.
  27. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2011; 27(6):493-495
  28. Martin CR, Walker WA.  Innate and mucosal immunity in the developing GI tract:  Relationship to early and later disease.  In:  Gleason & Devaskar:  Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn (9th ed). Elsevier/Saunders 2011; pp. 994-1006.
  29. Ganguli K, Walker WA.  Probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Clin Gastroenterology 2011; 45:S133-S138.
  30. Kaplan JL, Walker WA.  Early gut colonization and subsequent obesity risk.  Curr Opin Clin Nutr 2012; 15:278-284.
  31. Martin CR, Caicedo RA, Walker WA.  Development of intestinal mucosal barrier.  In:  Gastroenterology and Nutrition:  Neonatology Questions and Controversies, Ed. J. Neu, Elsevier/Saunders 2012, pp 39-58.
  32. Heintz K, Walker WA.  Protective nutrients:  Are they here to stay? Nutrition Today 2012, 47:110-122.
  33. Iyengar SR, Walker WA.   Immune factors in breast milk and the development of
    atopic disease. J Pediatr Gastroentl Nutr 2012) DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0013e3182617.a9d.
  34. Ganguli K, Walker WA.  Treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis with probiotics.  In:  Gastroenterology Clinics.  2002 in press).
  35. Weng M, Walker WA.  The role of gut microbiota in programming the immune phenotype.  J Developmental Origin of Health and Disease


Nutrition In Pediatrics ‑ Basic Science and Clinical Aspects (4th Edition). BC Decker Publisher Inc., 2008 eds. Duggan C, Watkins J, Walker WA