mghlogoMIBRClogomghfc-logohms-logo

People of the MIBRC

Principal Investigators:

Bobby Cherayil, MD

Alessio Fasano, MD

Verena Göbel, MD

Bryan Hurley, PhD

Hai Ning Shi, DVM, PhD

W. Allan Walker, MD

Collaborators:

Beth McCormick, PhD

Hans-Christian Reinecker, MD

Curriculum Vitae (Page 2)

W. Allan Walker, MD

Professor of Pediatrics, Chief, Harvard Medical School

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Walker WA, Strom RL. Sulfonamide-resistance neisseria menigitidis in Minneapolis. Minn Med 1966; 54:232-235.
  2. Fish RO, Walker WA, Anderson JA. Prenatal and postnatal development consequences of maternal phenylketonuria. Pediatrics 1966; 37:979-986.
  3. Marden P, Walker WA. A new generalized connective tissue syndrome. Am J Dis Child 1966; 112:225-228.
  4. Allison DU, Walker WA, Smith QT. Urinary hydroxylproline: Creatinine ratio of normal humans at various ages. Clin Chim Acta 1966; 14:729-733.
  5. Walker WA, Krivit W, Sharp H. Needle biopsy of the liver of infancy and childhood: A safe diagnostic aid in liver disease. Pediatrics 1967; 40:946-950.
  6. Walker WA, Edwards R, Burke-Strickland M. Portal vein thrombosis: an uncommon sequella of exchange transfusion. Lancet 1968; 88:236-237.
  7. Walker WA, Ulstrom R, Lowman J. Albumin synthesis in patients with
    hypoproteinemia. J Pediatr 1971; 78:812-820.
  8. Cornell R, Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ. Small intestinal absorption of horseradish peroxidase: A cytochemical study. Lab Invest 1971; 25:42-48.
  9. Warshaw AL, Walker WA, Cornell R, Isselbacher KJ. Small intestinal permeability to macramolecules: Transmission of horseradish peroxidase into mesenteric lymph and portal blood. Lab Invest 1971; 25:675-684.
  10. Walker WA, Cornell R, Davenport LM, Isselbacher KJ. Macromolecular absorption: Mechanism of horseradish peroxidase uptake and transport in adult and neonatal rat intestine. J Cell Biol 1972; 54:195-205.
  11. Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules: I. Effect of oral immunization. Science 1972; 177:608-610.
  12. Walker WA, Lowman JA, Hong RA. A micro-technique for measuring protein turnover rates in patients with hypoproteinemia. Am J Dis Child 1973; 125:51-54.
  13. Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules: II. Effect of parenteral immunization. J Immunol 1973; 111:221-226.
  14. Walker WA, Field M, Isselbacher KJ. Specific cholera toxin binding to isolated intestinal microvillous membranes. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1974; 71:320-324.
  15. Warshaw AL, Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ. Protein uptake by the intestine: evidence for absorption of intact macromolecules. Gastroenterology 1974; 66:987-992.
  16. Dorman JM, Glick TH, Shannon DC, Galdabini J, Walker WA. Complications of infectious mononucleosis: A fatal case in a two-year old. Am J Dis Child 1974; 128: 239-243.
  17. Warshaw AL, Walker WA. Intestinal absorption of intact antigenic protein. Surgery 1974; 76:495-499.
  18. Walker WA, Wu M, Isselbacher KJ, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules. III. Studies on the mechanism by which antibodies interfere with antigen uptake. J Immunol 1975; 115:854-861.
  19. Walker WA, Wu M, Isselbacher KJ, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules. IV. The effect of pancreatic duct ligation on breakdown of antigen and antigen-antibody complexes on the intestinal surface. Gastroenterology 1975; 69:1223-1229.
  20. Walker WA, Abel SN, Wu M, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules. V. comparison of the uptake of antigens and of antigen-antibody complexes in the rat small intestine. J Immunol 1976; 117:1028-1032.
  21. Wu A, Walker WA. The immunologic control mechanism against cholera toxin. I. Interference with toxin binding to intestinal receptors in vivo. Infect Immun 1976; 14:1034-1042.
  22. Wu A, Sicard RE, Aprille JR, Walker WA. The immunologic control mechanism against cholera toxin. II. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase without fluid secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commu 1976; 72:1414-1421.
  23. Warshaw AL, Bellini CA, Walker WA. The intestinal mucosal barrier to intact antigenic protein: Difference between colon and small intestine. Amer J Surg 1977; 133:55-58.
  24. Walker WA, Wu M, Bloch KJ. Intestinal goblet cell mucus release. I. Stimulation by immune complexes of mucus release from goblet cells of the rat small Intestine. Science 1977; 175:370-372.
  25. Andres JA, Lilly JR, Altman RP, Walker WA, Alpert E. Alpha-1-fetoprotein in neonatal hepatobiliary disease. J Pediatr 1977; 91:217-221.
  26. Falchuk KR, Walker WA, Perrotto J, Isselbacher KJ. Effect of vitamin A on the systemic and local antibody response to intragastrically administered bovine serum albumin. Infect Immun 1977; 15:361-365.
  27. Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ. Intestinal antibodies. New Eng J Med 1977; 296:767-773.
  28. Cohen S, Lake AM, Mathis R, Walker WA. Perspectives on chronic nonspecific diarrhea: Dietary management. Pediatrics 1978; 61:808-809.
  29. Eastham EJ, Lichauco T, Grady MI, Walker WA. Antigenicity of infant formulas: Role of immature intestine on protein permeability. J Pediatr 1978; 93:561-564.
  30. Lake AM, Bloch KJ, Neutra MR, Walker WA. Intestinal goblet cell mucus release. II. In vivo stimulation by antigen in the immunized rat. J Immunol 1979; 122:834-837.
  31. Lake AM, Stitzel AE, Urmson JR, Walker WA, Spitzer RE. Complement alterations in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1979; 76:1374-1379.
  32. Cohen SA, Hendricks KM, Eastham EJ, Mathis RK, Walker WA. Chronic nonspecific diarrhea: Dietary relationships. Pediatrics 1979; 64:402-407.
  33. Bloch KJ, Bloch DB, Stearns M, Walker WA. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules. VI. Uptake of protein antigen in vivo in normal and in rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or subjected to mild systemic anaphylaxis. Gastroenterology 1979; 77:1039-1044.
  34. Andres JM, Walker WA. Effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin on the developing rat liver. I. Giant cell induction and disruption in protein metabolism. Pediatr Res 1979; 13:1290-1293.
  35. Lake AM, Bloch KJ, Sinclair K, Walker WA. Intestinal goblet cell mucus release. III. Anaphylactic release of intestinal goblet cell mucus. Immunology 1979; 39:173-178.
  36. Kleinman RE, Jacobson L, Hormann E, Walker WA. Protein values on milk samples from mothers without biologic pregnancies. J Pediatr 1980; 97:612-615.
  37. Udall JN, Bloch KJ, Fritze L, Walker WA. Binding of exogeneous protein fragments to native proteins: Possible explanation for the over estimation of uptake of extrinsically labelled macromolecules from the gut. Immunology 1981; 42:561-567.
  38. Udall JN, Pang K, Fritze L, Kleinman R, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. I. The effect of age on intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Pediatr Res 1981; 15:241-243.
  39. Udall JN, Colony P, Fritze L, Pang K, Trier JS, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. II. Effect of natural versus artificial feeding on intestinal permeability. Pediatr Res 1981; 15:245-249.
  40. Bloch KJ, Walker WA. Effect of locally-induced intestinal anaphylaxis on the uptake of a bystander antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981; 67:312-316.
  41. Carter EA, Bloch KJ, Cohen S, Isselbacher KJ, Walker WA. Use of hydrogen gas (H2) analysis to assess intestinal absorption:† Studies in normal rats and in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Gastroenterology 1981; 81:1091-1097.
  42. Pang KY, Walker WA, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules: VII. Differences in distribution and degradation of protein antigen in control and immunized rats. Gut 1981; 22:1018-1024.
  43. Eastham EJ, Lichauco T, Pang K, Walker WA. Antigenicity of infant formulas and the induction of systemic immunological tolerance by oral feeding: Cow's milk versus soy milk. J Pediatr Gastroent Nutr 1982; 1:23-28.
  44. Harmatz PR, Kleinman RE, Bunnell B, Bloch KJ, Walker WA. Hepatobiliary
    clearance of IgA immune complexes formed in the circulation. Hepatology 1982; 2:328-333.
  45. Kleinman RE, Harmatz PR, Walker WA. The liver: An integral part of the enteric mucosal immune system. Hepatology 1982; 2:379-384.
  46. Rothman D, Latham MC, Walker WA. Transport of macromolecules in malnourished animals. I. Evidence for increased uptake of intestinal antigens. Nutr Res 1982; 3:467-473.
  47. Rothman D, Latham MC, Walker WA. Transport of macromolecules in malnourished animals. II. Intravenous clearance after antigen absorption. Nutr Res 1982; 3:475-480.
  48. Udall JN, Bloch KJ, Walker WA. Transport of proteases across neonatal intestine and development of liver disease in infants with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Lancet 1982; 2:1441-1443.
  49. Kleinman RE, Harmatz PR, Jacobson LA, Bloch KJ, Walker WA. Passive transplacental immunization: Influence on the uptake of enteric antigens. Pediatr Res 1983; 17:449-451.
  50. Pang K, Bresson JL, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. III. Evidence for structural differences in microvillus membranes from newborn and adult rabbits. Biochem Biophys Acta 1983; 727:201-208.
  51. Pang K, Bresson JL, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. IV. Comparative effect of calcium binding on microvillus membrane structure in newborn and adult rats. Pediatr Res 1983; 17:856-861.
  52. Shub MD, Pang KY, Swann DA, Walker WA. Age related chemical changes in rat small intestinal mucus glycoprotein. J Biochem 1983; 215:405-411.
  53. Harmatz PR, Kleinman RE, Walker WA, Bloch KJ. The effect of bile duct obstruction on the clearance of circulating IgA immune complexes. Hepatology 1983; 4:96-100.
  54. Stern M, Walker WA. Food proteins and the gut mucosal barrier. I. Binding and uptake of cow's milk proteins by rat jejunum in vivo. Am J Physiol 1984; 246:G556-G562.
  55. Andres JM, Darby BR, Walker WA. The effect of E. coli endotoxin on the developing rat liver. II. Immunohistochemical localization of alpha-fetoprotein in rat liver multinucleated giant cells. Pediatr Res 1984; 17:1017-1020
  56. Udall JN, Bloch KJ, Vachino G, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. V. The effect of inhibition of proteolysis on the uptake of macromolecules by the intestine of the newborn rabbit. Biol Neonate 1984; 45:289-295.
  57. Bloch KJ, Perry RP, Bloch M, Walker WA. Feeding of antigen reduces antigen-binding activity and blunts the secondary response of actively immunized rats. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984; 74:482-488.
  58. Bresson JL, Pang KY, Walker WA. Microvillus membrane differentiation: Quantitative difference in cholera toxin binding to the intestinal surface of newborn and adult rabbits. Pediatr Res 1984; 18:984-987.
  59. Stern M, Pang KY, Walker WA. Food proteins and the mucosal gut barrier. II. Differential interaction of cow's milk proteins with the mucous coat and the surface membrane of adult and immature rat jejunum. Pediatr Res 1984; 18:1252-1257.
  60. Udall JN, Bloch KJ, Newman AP, Dixon M, Walker WA. Intestinal uptake of trypsin in newborn and weaned rabbits. Am J Physiol 1984; 247:G183-G188.
  61. Stern M, Harmatz PR, Kleinman RE, Walker WA. Food Proteins and the gut mucosal barrier. III. The influence of lactation and prolactin on the in vitro binding and uptake of bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin in the rat jejunum. Pediatr Res 1985; 19:320-324.
  62. Lake AM, Kim S, Mathis RK, Walker WA. Influence of preoperative parenteral alimentation on post-operative growth in adolescent Crohn's disease. J Pediatr Gastroent Nutr 1985; 4:182-186.
  63. Walker WA. Absorption of protein and protein fragments in the developing intestine: Role of immunologic/allergic reactions. Pediatrics 1985; 75(suppl):167-171.
  64. Pang KY, Newman AP, Udall JN, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. VI. In utero maturation of the microvillus surface by cortisone. Am J. Physiol 1985; 249:G85-G91.
  65. Rothman D, Udall JN, Pang KY, Kirkham SE, Walker WA. The effect of short term starvation on mucosal barrier function in the newborn rabbit. Pediatr Res 1985; 19:727-731.
  66. Levine J, Seidman E, Teele RL, Walker WA. Gallbladder wall thickening in acute hepatitis. J Pediatr Gastroent Nutr 1986;4-1-3.
  67. Seidman EG Hanson DG, Walker WA. Increased permeability to polyethylene glycol 4000 in rabbits with experimental colitis. Gastroenterology 1986; 93:1-7.
  68. Harmatz PR, Bloch KJ, Kleinman RE, Walsh ME, Walker WA. Influence of circulating maternal antibody on the transfer of dietary antigen to neonatal mice via milk. Immunology 1986; 57:43-48.
  69. Harmatz PR, Hanson DG, Walsh ME, Kleinman RE, Bloch KJ, Walker WA. Transfer of protein antigens into milk after intravenous injection into lactating mice. Am. J. Physiol 1986; 251:E231-E236.
  70. Chu SW, Walker WA. Developmental changes in the activities of sialyl- and fucosyltransferases in the rat intestine. Biochem Biophys Acta 1986; 740:170-175.
  71. Kirkham SE, Bloch KJ, Bloch MB, Perry RP, Walker WA. Immune complex-induced enteropathy in the rat. I. Clinical and histological features. Digest Dis Sci 1986; 31:737-743.
  72. Carter EA, Kirkham E, Udall JN, Walker WA. Thermal injury and gastrointestinal function I. Effect on small intestinal nutrient absorption and DNA synthesis. J Burn Care Rehab 1986; 7:469-474.
  73. Carter EA, Kirkham SE, Udall JN, Jung W, Walker WA. Thermal injury and gastrointestinal function. II. Evidence for the production of hepatic dysfunction in the rat following burn injury. J Burn Care Rehab 1986; 7:475-478.
  74. Stern M, Carter EA, Walker WA. Food proteins and gut mucosal barrier, IV. Effects of acute and chronic ethanol administration on handling and uptake of bovine serum albumin by rat small intestine. Digest Dis Sci 1986; 31:1242-1248
  75. Levine JL, Seidman E, Walker WA. Screening tests for enteropathy in children. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141:435-438.
  76. Pang KY, Bresson JL, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier. VIII. Lectin identification of carbohydrate differences. Am J Physiol 1987; 252:G685-G691.
  77. Israel EJ, Pang KY, Harmatz PR, Walker WA. Structural and functional maturation of the rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine. Am J Physiol 1987; 252:G762-G767.
  78. Chu SW, Geyer RP, Walker WA. Myo-isnositol action on gerbil intestine: alterations in alkaline phosphatase activity upon phosphatidylinositol depletion and repletion in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 1987; 929:220-225.
  79. Kleinman R, Walker WA. The liver and intestinal IgA: Up from the "minors"? Gastroenterology 1987; 93:650-651.
  80. Harmatz PR, Walsh MK, Walker WA, Hanson DG, Bloch KJ. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitability of 125I in the blood of mice fed 125I. J Immunol Methods 1987; 102:213-219.
  81. Lencer WI, Chu SW, Walker WA. Differential binding kinetics of cholera toxin to intestinal microvillus membrane during development. Infect Immun 1987; 55:3126-3130.
  82. Baker SS, Suthutvoravut U, Walker WA. Short-term neonatal starvation in rabbits. I. Effect on microvillus membrane function. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1987; 6:961-966.
  83. Weaver LT, Walker WA. Epidermal growth factor and the developing human gut (editorial). Gastroenterology 1988; 94:845-847.
  84. Chu SW, Walker WA. Development of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier: VII. Changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acid composition of intestinal microvillus membranes from newborn and adult rats. Pediatr Res 1988; 23:439-442.
  85. Israel EJ, Walker WA. Host defense development in the gut and related disorders. Pediatr Clin N. Am. 1988; 35: 1, 1-15.
  86. Levine JJ, Udall JN, Bloch KJ, Hanson DG, James BC, Walker WA. Plasma immunoreactive trypsinogen levels during development. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1988; 7:406-410.
  87. Carter EA, Tompkins RG, Yarmush ML, Walker WA, Burke JF. Redistribution of blood flow following thermal injury and hemorrhagic shock. J Applied Physiol 1988; 65:1782-1788.
  88. Hendricks K, Walker WA. Current issues in feeding the normal infant (editorial). Nutrition 1988; 4:476.
  89. Chu SW, Ely IG, Walker WA. Age and cortisone alter host responsiveness to cholera toxin in the developing gut. Am J Physiol 1989; 256: G220-226.
  90. Ozaki CK, Chu SW, Walker WA. Developmental changes in galactosyltransferase activity in the rat small intestine. Biochem Biophys Acta 1989; 991:243-247.
  91. Harmatz, P, Bloch KJ, Brown M, Walker WA, Kleinman R. Intestinal adaptation during lactation in the mouse: I. Enhanced intestinal uptake of dietary protein antigen. Immunology 1989; 67:92-95.
  92. Seo JK, Chu SW, Walker WA. Development of intestinal host defense: An increased sensitivity in the adenylate cyclase response to cholera toxin in suckling rats. Pediatr. Res. 1989; 25:225-227.
  93. Baker SS, Campbell C, Walker WA. Short term neonatal starvation alteres cholera toxin binding. J Nutr 1989; 119:280-285.
  94. Gonnella PA, Harmatz PR, Walker WA. Prolactin is transported across the epithelium of the jejunum and ileum of the suckling rat. J Cell Physiol 1989;140(1):138-249.
  95. Zemelman BV, Chu SW, Walker WA. The host response to Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin via two microvillus membrane receptors in the rat intestine. Infec Immun 1989; 57:2947-2952.
  96. Howdle P, Hanson DG, Trejdosiewicz LK, Ciclitira PJ, Smart CJ, Walker WA. Responses of antigen-specific longterm murine T cell lines to wheat gliadin fractions. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1989; 89:269-274.
  97. Kleinman RE, Harmatz PR, Hatz RA, Brown M, Ariniello PD, Walker WA, Bloch KJ. Hapten-induced anaphylaxis in the intestine. I. Uptake and characterization of a bystander protein. Immunology 1990; 68:464-468.
  98. Weaver LT, Gonnella PA, Israel EJ, Walker WA. Uptake and transport of epidermal growth factor by the small intestinal epithelium of the fetal rat. Gastroenterology 1990;98:828-837.
  99. Hatz RA, Bloch KJ, Harmatz PR, Gonnella, PA, Ariniello PD, Walker WA, Kleinman, RE. Divalent hapten-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in the mouse enhances macromolecular uptake from the stomach. Gastroenterology 1990; 98:894-900.
  100. Israel E, Schiffrin EJ, Carter EA, Freiberg E, Walker WA. Prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis: use of prenatal cortisone to modify the immature intestinal mucosal barrier in the rat. Gastroenterology 1990; 99:133-138.
  101. Eglow R, Pothoulakis C, Itzkowitz S, Israel EJ, O'Keane CJ, Gong D, Gao N, Xu YL, Walker WA, LaMont JT. Diminished clostridium difficile toxin a sensitivity in newborn rabbit ileum is associated with decreased toxin a receptor. J Clin Invest 1992; 90:822-829.
  102. Zemelman BV, Walker WA, Chu SW. Expression and developmental regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase in the rat small intestine. J Clin Invest 1992; 90:1016-1022.
  103. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Uptake and transport of macromolecules by the intestine: Possible role in clinical disorders (An update). Gastroenterology 1993; 104:622-629.
  104. Chu SW, Walker WA. Bacterial toxin interaction with the developing intestine: A possible explanation for toxigenic diarrhea of infancy. Gastroenterology 1993; 104:916-925.
  105. Israel EJ, Simister N, Freiberg E, Caplan A, Walker WA. Immunoglobulin G binding sites on the human fetal intestine: A possible alternate explanation for the passive transfer of immunity from mother to infant. Immunology 1993; 79:77-81.
  106. He Y, Chu SW, Walker WA. Nucleotide supplements after proliferation and differentiation of cultured human (Caco-2) and rat (IEC-6) intestinal epithelial cells. J Nutr 1993; 123:1017-1027.
  107. Sanderson IR, Ouellette AJ, Carter EA, Walker WA, Harmatz PR. Differential regulation of B7 mRNA in enterocytes and lymphoid cells. Immunology 1993;79:434-438.
  108. Schiffrin EJ, Walker WA, Carter EA, Benjamin J, Freiberg E, Israel E. Influence of prenatal mucosal barrier maturation on bacterial colonization in the newborn. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1993; 17:271-275.
  109. Oguchi S, Walker WA, Sanderson IR. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein profile secreted by human intestinal epithelial cells varies with polarity. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1993; 196(2):789-793.
  110. Kleigman RM, Walker WA, Yolken RH. NEC: Research agenda for a disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Pediatr Res 1993; 34:701-708.
  111. Hendricks KM, Williams E, Stoker TW, Schoenfeld DA, Walker WA, Kleinman RE. Dietary intake of adolescents with Crohn's disease. J Am Dietetic Assoc 1994; 94:441-444.
  112. He Y. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Uptake, transport and metabolism of exogenous nucleosides in intestinal epithelial cell cultures. J. Nutr 1994; 124:1942-1949.
  113. Oguchi S, Walker WA, Sanderson IR. The profile of IGF-binding proteins secreted by human intestinal epithelial cells changes with differentiation. Am J Physiol 1994; G843-G850.
  114. Oguchi S, Walker WA, Sanderson IR. Differentiation and polarity alter the binding of IGF-I to human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. J Pediatr Gastroent Nutr 1995; 20:148-155.
  115. Oguchi S, Walker WA, Sanderson IR. Iron saturation alters the effect of lactoferrin on the proliferation and differentiation of human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). Biol Neonate 1995; 67:330-339.
  116. Carver JD, Walker WA. The role of nucleotides in human nutrition. Nutritional Biochemistry; 1995; 6:58-72.
  117. Tanaka M, Lee K, Martinez-Augustin O, He Y, Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Exogenous nucleotides alter the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of human small intestinal epithelium. J Nutr; 1996; 126:424-433.
  118. Sanderson IR, Xu Z, Chu SW, Xie QY, Levine L, Walker WA. Developmental differences in the expression of the cholera toxin sensitive subunit (Gs
  119. Forchielli ML, Lo CW, Richardson D, Gura K, Walker WA, Tonelli E. Central venous line related bacteremia during total parenteral nutrition and/or chemotherapy infusions in children. Ann Ig 1997; 9:35-40.
  120. Oguchi A, Shinohara K, Yamashiro Y, Walker WA, Sanderson IR. Growth Factors in breast Milk and Their Effect on Gastrointestinal Development. Acta Paed Sin, 1997; 38(5):332-337.
  121. Walker WA, Duffy L. Diet and bacterial colonization: Role of probiotics and prebiotics. J Nutr Biochem 1997; 9:668-675.
  122. Walker WA. A Subspecialistísís view of training pediatric practice in the next millennium. J Pediatrics 1998; 102:636-644.
  123. Dai D, Walker WA. Role of bacterial colonization in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and its prevention. Acta Paed Sinc 1998; 39:357-365.
  124. Siafakas CG, Anatolitou F, Fusunyan RD, Walker WA, Sanderson IR. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is present in human breast milk and its receptor is present on intestinal epithelial cells. Pediatr Res 1999;45:652-657
  125. Nanthakumar N, Fusunyan RD, Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Inflammation in the developing human intestine: A possible pathophysiologic basis for necrotizing enterocolitis. PNAS 2000; 97(11):6043-6048.
  126. Teitelbaum JE, Walker WA. The role of omega 3 fatty acids in intestinal inflammation. J Nutr Biochemistry 2001; 12:21-32.
  127. Fusunyan R, Nanthakumar N, Baldeon, ME, Walker WA. Evidence for an innate immune response in the immature intestine: Toll-like receptors on fetal enterocytes. Pediatric Research 2001; 49(4):589-593.
  128. Spiekermann G, Walker WA. Oral tolerance and its role in clinical disease. J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2001; 32:237-255.
  129. Claud E, Walker WA. Hypothesis: Inappropriate colonization of the premature intestine can cause neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. FASEB J 2001; 15:1398-1403.
  130. Savidge TC, Lowe DC, Walker WA. Developmental regulation of intestinal epithelial hydrolyase activity in human jejunal xenografts maintained in severe-combined immunodeficient mice. Pediatric Research 2001; 50(2):196-202.
  131. Walker WA. New insights into the pathogenesis of food allergy. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 2001; 33:101-102.
  132. Fernandez IM, Nayreku AT, Silva M, Schuch R, Walker WA. Siber Am, McCormick BA. Cadaverine prevents the escape of Shigella flexneri from out of the phagolysosme: A connection between bacterial dissemination and neutrophil transepithelial signaling. J Infectious Disease 2001; 184:643-53.
  133. Dai D, Nanthakumar N, Savidge TC, Newburg DS, Walker WA. Region-specific ontogeny of (2.6 sialytransferase during normal and cortisone-induced maturation in the mouse intestine. Am J Physiology 2002; 282:G480-G490.
  134. Nanthakumar NN, Dai D, Newburg DS, Walker WA. (November 15, 2002) The role of indigenous microflora in the development of murine intestinal fucosyl- and siayltransferases. FASEB J.(November 15, 2002) 10.1096/fj.02-003 1fje (summary: FASEB J 2003; 17:44-46.
  135. Uzma Shah, Blumberg RS, Simister NE, Lencer WI, Walker WA. The distribution of the IgG Fc receptor, FcRn, in the human fetal intestine. Ped Res 2003, 53(2):295-391.
  136. Kohler H, McCormick BA, Walker WA. Bacterial-enterocyte crosstalk: Cellular mechanisms in health and disease. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 2003; 36(2):175-185.
  137. Claud EC, Savidge T, Walker WA. Modulation of human intestinal epithelial cell interleukin-8 secretion by human milk factors. Ped Res 2003; 53(3):419-425.
  138. Buisane J-P, Aubert J-P, Walker WA, Savidge TC. Developmental patterns of mucin gene expression in human fetal small intestinal xenografts maintained in severe-combined immunodeficient mice. Ped Res, 2003 (in press).
  139. Nanthakumar NN, Klopcic C, Walker WA. Normal and glucocorticoid induced development of the human small intestinal xenograft. Am J Physiology (Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology) 2003 (in press).
  140. Lu L, Baldeon ME, Walker WA. Development of microbial-human enterocyte interaction: Cholera toxin. Ped Res 2003 (submitted).
  141. Claud EC, Lu L, Anton PM, Savidge T, Walker WA, Cherayil BJ. Developmentally-regulated IkB expression in intestinal epithelium and susceptibility to flagellin-induced inflammation. PNAS 2004; 101(19):7404-7408.
  142. Yuan Q, Walker WA. Innate immunity of the gut: Mucosal defense in health and disease. J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2004; 38:463-472.
  143. Huang F-C, Werne A, Li Q, Galyov EE, Walker WA, Cherayil BJ. Cooperative interactions between flagellin and SopE2 in the epithelial IL-8 response to Salmonella infection. Infec Immun 2004; 72:5052-5062.
  144. Nanthakumar NN, Young C, Ko JS, Meng D, Chen J, Buie T, Walker WA. Glucocorticoid responsiveness in the developing human intestine: possible role in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. AJP: GI and Liver Physiology 2005 288:G85-G92.
  145. Nanthakumar NN, Dai D, Meng D, Chaudry N, Newburg DS, Walker WA. Regulation of intestinal ontogeny: effect of glucocorticoids and luminal microbes on galactosyltransferase and terehalase induction in mice. Glycobiology 2005; 15:221-232.
  146. Forchielli ML, Walker WA. The role of GALT and mucosal defense. Br J Nutr
    2005; 93:S41-S48.
  147. Lu L, Khan S, Lencer W, Walker WA. Endocytosis of cholera toxin by human enterocytes is developmentally regulated. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005; 289:G332-G341.
  148. Rhee SJ, Walker WA, Cherayil BJ. Developmentally-regulated intestinal expression of IFNg and its target genes and the age-specific response to Salmonella infection. J Immunol 2005; 175:1127-1136.
  149. Chen C-C, Louie S, McCormick B, Walker WA, Shi H. Concurrent infection of an intestinal helminth parasite impairs host resistance to Citrobacter rodentium and enhances Citrobacter-induced colitis mice. Infect Immun 2005; 73:5468-5481.
  150. Chen C-C, Louie S, Shi H, Walker WA. Precolonization with the probiotic
    lactobacillus acidophilus early in life effectively inhibits murine Citrobacter rodentium colits. Ped Res 2005; 58(6):1185-1191.
  151. Savidge TC, Newman PG, Pan W-H, Weng M, McCormick, Quaroni A, Walker WA. Lipopolysaccharide-induced human enterocyte tolerance to cytokine-meidated interleukin-8 production may occur independently of TLS-4/MD-2 signalling. Ped Res 2006; (in press).
  152. Chen C-C, Louie S, McCormick B, Walker WA, Shi H.  Helminth-primed dendritic cells alter the host response to enteric bacterial infection.  J Immunol  2006; 176:472-483.
  153. Walker WA, Sherman P, Cohen M, Barnard J.  State of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition:  2006 and beyond.  Gastroenterology 2007; 132:434-436.
  154. Grave GD, Nelson SA, Walker WA, Moss RL, Dvorak B, Hamilton FA, Higgins R, Raju TNK.  New therapies and preventive approaches for necrotizing enterocolitis:  Report of a research planning workshop.  Pediatr Res 2007; 62:510-514.
  155. Broekaert I, Nanthaumar NN, Walker WA.  Secreted probiotic factors ameliorate enteropathogenic infection in zinc-deficient human Caco-2 and T84 cell lines.  Ped Res 2007; 62:139-144.
  156. Weng M, Huntley D, Huang I-F, Foye-Jackson O, Wang L, Sarkissian A, Zhou Q, Walker WA, Cherayil B, Shi HN.  Alternatively activated macrophages in intestinal helminth infection:  Effects on concurrent bacterial colitis.  J Immunol 2007; 179:4721-4731.
  157. Meng D, Newburg DS, Young C, Baker A, Tonokonogy SL, Sartor RB, Walker WA, Nanthakumar N.  Bacterial symbionts induce a FUT2-dependent fucosylated niche on colonic epithelium via ERK and JNK signaling.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 293:G780-G-787.
  158. Weng M, Walker WA, Sanderson IR.  Butyrate regulates the expression of pathogen-triggered IL-8 in intestinal epithelia.  Ped Res 2007; 62:542-546.
  159. Shi HN, Walker WA.  The role of TIM-3 in food allergy.  Gastroenterology 2007; 133:1723-1726.
  160. Wang L, Johnson EE, Shi HN, Walker WA, Wessing-Resnick M, Cherayil B.
    Attenuated inflammatory responses in hemochromatosis reveal a role for iron in the regulation of macrophage cytokine translation.  J Immunol 2008;  181:2723-2731.  PMID:  18684963
  161. Lu, L, Bao Y, Khan A, Goldstein AM, Newburg DS, Quaroni A, Brown D, Walker WA. Hydrocortisone modulates cholera toxin endocytosis by regulating immature enterocyte plasma membrane phospholipids.  Gastroenterology 2008; 135:185-193.   PMID:  18456000
  162. Chen C-C, C C-H, Lin T-Y, Shi H, Walker WA.  Effect of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus on Citrobacter rodentium colitis:  The role of dendritic cells.  Pediatr Res 2009, 65:169-175.  PMID:  19262293
  163. Lu L, Khan A, Walker WA.  ADP-ribosylation factors regulate the development of CT-signaling in immature human enterocytes.  AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 2009; 296(6):G1221-G1229.  PMID:  19359423
  164. Rautava S, Nanthakumar NN, Dubert-Ferrandon, Lu L, Rautava J, Walker WA.  Breast milk transforming growth factor-β2 specifically attenuates IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses in the immature human intestine via a SMAD6 and ERK-dependent mechanism.  Neonatology 2010; 99:192-201.  PMID: 20881435
  165. 168.     Lu L, Li T, William G, Petit E, Walker WA.  Hydrocortisone induces changes in gene expression and differentiation in immature human enterocytes.  Am J Phys- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiol 2011; 300:G425-G432.
  166. Nanthakumar N, Meng D, Goldstein AM, Zhu W, Lu K, Uauy R, Llano A, Claud EC, Walker WA.  The mechanism of excessive intestinal inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis:  An immature innate immune response.  Plos One 6:(3):E17776.doi:10.1371/journal.one.001766.
  167. Rautava S, Lu L, Nanthakumar NN, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Walker WA. TGF-β2 induces maturation of immature human intestinal epithelial cells and inhibits inflammatory cytokine response induced via NF-κB pathway.  J Pediatr Nutr 2012 (in press).
  168. Su C, Cao Y, Kaplan J, Zhang M, Conroy M, Walker WA, Shi H.  Duodenla helminth infection alters barrier function of the colonic epithelium via adaptive immune activation.  Infec  Immun 2011; 79(6):2285-2294.
  169. Chen CC, Lin WC, Kong MS, Shi HN, Walker WA, Lin CY, Huang CT, Lin YC, Jung SM, Lin TY. Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue. Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 30:1-12.

PROCEEDINGS OF MEETINGS

  1. Hyslop NE, Kern KC, Walker WA. Lysozyme in human colostrum and breast milk. In: Osserman EF, Canfield RE, Boyshok S, eds. Lysozyme New York Academic Press, 1974:449-462.
  2. Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ, Bloch KJ. Immunologic control of soluable protein absorption from the small intestine: A gut-surface phenomenon. Am J Cl in Nutr 1974; 27:1434-1440.
  3. Walker WA. Macromolecular transport in the developing small intestine. In: Sunshine P, ed. Gastrointestinal Development and Neonatal Nutrition. Columbus, Ohio: Seventy-second Ross Conference on Pediatric Research, 1977:44-45.
  4. Walker WA. Development of gastrointestinal function and selective dysfunction. Mead Johnson Symposium on Perinatal and Developmental Medicine. No. 11, June 1977:3-11.
  5. Walker WA. Development of intestinal host defense mechanisms and the passive protective role of human milk. Mead Johnson Symposium on Perinatal and Developmental Medicine. No. 11, 1977;39-49.
  6. Walker WA. Gastrointestinal host defense: Importance of gut closure in control of macromolecular transport. Ciba Found Sympos 1979; 70;201-216.
  7. Walker WA, Eastham EJ. Intestinal permeability of dietary antigens and gastrointestinal allergic states in infancy. In: Balli F, ed. Nutritional Problems in Childhood, 1979; Padova, Italy, pp. 159-166.
  8. Walker WA. Effect of immunologic and maturational factors in colostrum or antigen uptake. In: Freier S, Eidelman AL, eds. Human Milk: It's Biological and Social Value. Amsterdam: Excerpta medica, 1980; 127-131.
  9. Walker WA, Bloch KJ. Antigen uptake of mechanisms: control and pathologic states. In: Mucosal Immune System in Health and Disease, Eighty-first Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Ohio: Ross Laboratories, 1980; 132-145.
  10. Bloch KJ, Lake AM, Sinclair K, Walker WA. IgE-mediated alterations intestinal permeability and mucus release. In: Mucosal Immune System in Health and Disease, Eighty-first Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Ohio: Ross Laboratories, 1980; 273-282.
  11. Walker WA. The nature and role of mucosal surface immunity against infection in the newborn. In: Lambert J, ed. Immunological Aspects of Infection in the Fetus and Newborn. London: Academic Press 1981:83-106.
  12. Walker WA. The effect of colostrum on the maturation of intestinal host defense. In: Lebenthal E, ed. Gastrointestinal Development and Infant Nutrition. New York, New York: Raven Press 1981;225-238.
  13. Walker WA. Transport of dietary antigens across the gut and its physiologic consequences. In: Rees AR, Purcell J, eds. Disease and the environment. England, Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Limited, 1982;115-123.
  14. Udall JN, Walker WA. Macromolecular transport across the developing intestine. In: Hunt VR, Smith MK, Worth D, eds. Environmental Factors In Human Growth and Development, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1982; 187-198.
  15. Walker WA. Intestinal allergy: Pathogenesis of cow's milk sensitivity. 2nd International Symposium on Nutritional Problems in Childhood, Mondena, Italy, Olivi O, ed. 1983;87-96.
  16. Walker WA, Bloch KJ. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules: in vitro and in vivo studies. The New York Academy of Science 1983;593-602.
  17. Udall JN, Walker WA. Antigen handling by the gut. In: Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal Inflammation Proceedings of the Fourth BSG/SK&F International Workshop, Chadwick VS, ed. Great Britain: The Alden Press, 1984; 74-80.
  18. Walker WA. Role of the mucosal barrier to toxin/microbial toxins. Ciba Found Sympos 1985; 112:34-47.
  19. Carter EA, Harmatz P, Udall JN, Walker WA. Barrier defense function of the small intestine: Effect of ethanol and acute burn trauma. Adv In Exp Med Biol, 1987. 216A:829-834.
  20. Seo JK, Grant KE, Sullivan DA, Hanson DG, Bloch KJ, Harmatz PR, Walker WA. Biliary IgA content following common duct cannulation In the rat. Adv Exp Med Biol, 1987;216B:1133-1138.
  21. Harmatz PR, Hanson DG, Walsh MK, Kleinman RE, Bloch KJ, Walker WA. Clearance, localization and catabolism of intravenously administered protein antigens in lactacting mice. Adv Exp Med Biol, 1987; 216A:673-683.
  22. Harmatz PR, Hanson DG, Brown M, Kleinman RE, Walker WA, Bloch KJ. Transfer of maternal food proteins In milk. In: Human Lactation 3: The Effects of Human Milk on the Recipient Infant, Goldman AS, Atkinson SA, Hanson LA (eds) New York, 1987; p. 289-299.
  23. Walker WA. Transmucosal passage of antigens. In: Food Allergy. Reinhardt D. and Schmidt E., eds., Nestle's Nutrition Workshop Series, vol 17, Raven Press, New York, 1988;15-34.
  24. Schreiber RA, Walker WA. Gut immaturity in neonates. In: Food Intolerance in Infancy: Allergy, Immunology and Gastroenterology. Hamburger, RN, ed., Raven Press, Ltd., New York, 1989; 43-57.
  25. Israel EJ, Walker WA. Breastfeeding and prevention of disease: Facts and hypothesis. In: Proceedings from the Third International Symposium on Nutritional and Gastroenterological Problems in Childhood, Modena, Italy, 1990, pp. 33-45.
  26. Israel EJ, Walker WA. Intestinal mucosal barrier: Role in necrotizing enterocolitis. Proceedings of the International Congress on Neonatal Hematology and Immunology Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam. 1990; pp. 181-201.
  27. Chu SW, Walker WA. Growth factor signal transduction in human intestinal cells. In: Immunology of Milk and the Neonate Mestecky J et al, eds., Plenum Press 1991; vol 310, 107-112.
  28. Israel EJ, Schiffrin EJ, Carter EA, Frieberg E, Walker WA. Cortisone strengthens the intestinal mucosal barrier in a rodent NEC model. In: Immunology of Milk and the Neonate Mestecky J et al, eds., Plenum Press 1991; vol 310, 375-380.
  29. Walker WA, Sanderson IR. Epithelial barrier function to antigens. An Overview. In: Neuro-Immuno-Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Mucosa: Implications for Inflammatory Diseases Stead RH, Perdue MH, Cooke H, Powell DW, Barrett KE (eds) Ann Rev NY Acad Sci 1992; pp. 10-17.
  30. Walker WA. Summary and future directions. In: Adverse Reactions to Foods in Infancy and Childhood J Ped 1992; 121(Supplement):S4-S7.
  31. Lo CW, Walker WA. Use of total parenteral nutrition in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. In: Paediatric Gastroenterology: Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Morbus Hirschsprung. 1992; F. Hadziselimovic, B. Herzog, B. Kinderspital, Basal, Switzerland 1992, pp. 99-108.
  32. Sanderson IR and Walker WA. Influence of nutrients on enterocyte gene expression. An Early Glimpse of he Future. In: Wyeth-Ayerst Nutritional Seminar Series Maternal-Child Issues in Nutrition, Excerpta Medica Inc., 1992, vo2 #3, pp 68-79.
  33. Walker WA. Nucleotides and Nutrition: Role as dietary supplement. J. Nutr 1994; 124:121S-123S.
  34. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Establishment of a human fetal small intestinal epithelial cell line. In: Int Arch Allergy Immunol, Nantucket, MA 1995; 107:396-397.
  35. Walker WA, Sanderson IR. The enterocyte and antigen transport. In: Mucosal Immunity and the Gut Epithelium Interaction in Health and Disease Symposium, 1995; vol 4, pp 19-31.
  36. Walker, WA. Exogenous nucleotides and gastrointestinal immunity. Trans Proceedings. 1996; 28:2438-2441.
  37. Furuta GT, Walker WA. Immunologic mechanisms of infectious diarrhea. In: Diarrheal Disease. 38th Nutrition Workshop-Islamabad, Pakistan, 1996.
  38. Srivastava MD, Walker WA. The development of the mucosal immune system in the sick neonate. In: Neonatal Hematology and Immunology III Bellanti JA, Bracci R, Prindull G, Xanthao M. Elsevier, New York, 1997, pp. 115-120.
  39. Siafakas C, Sanderson IR, Walker WA, Xanthou M. Breast milk cells and their interaction with intestinal mucosa. In: Neonatal Hematology and Immunology III Bellanti JA, Bracci R, Prindull G, Xanthou M. Elsevier, New York, 1997, pp. 121-126.
  40. Walker WA. Breast Milk and the Prevention of Neonatal and Preterm Gastrointestinal Disease States: A New Perspective. Acta Paed Sin, 1998; 38(5):321-331.
  41. Dai D, Walker, WA. Protective Nutrients for the Immature Gut. In: Nutrition of the Very Low Birthweight Infant, 1999; 43: 179-194.
  42. Bernt K, Walker WA. Human Milk as a Carrier of Biochemical Messages. Proceedings from Advances in Infant Feeding - Human Milk Formula Symposium. Bolgna, Italy, Acta Pediatr 1999; 88:27-41.
  43. Walker WA. Pathologic bacterial enterocyte "crosstalk" and gastrointestinal infection. Proceedings 6th APPSPGN Congress, Singaproe, Singapore Pediatric Journal 2000, 42(1):31-37.
  44. Walker WA. Role of nutrients and bacterial colonization in the development of intestinal defense. Proceedings of the Sino-American Symposium, Shanghai, J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2000, 30(2):S2-S7.
  45. Dai D, Nanthakumar NN, Newburg DS, Walker WA. Role of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in intestinal host defense. Proceedings of the Sino-American Symposium, Shanghai, J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2000; 30:S23-S33.
  46. Teitelbaum JE, Walker WA. Gastrointestinal Imagining in Pediatric Gastroenterology. Eds. DA Stringer, PS Babyn. In: Pediatric Gastrointestinal Imaging and Intervention, Hamilton, B.C. Decker, Inc. 2000; pp.1-7.
  47. Shah U, Walker WA. Immunopathogenesis of diarrhoeal disease. In: Contemporary Issues in Childhood Diarrhea and Malnutrition. Ed. ZA Bhutta. Oxford Press, 2000, pp. 5773.
  48. Walker WA. Advances in nutritional education for medical students. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72(supplement):865S-867S.
  49. Lu L, Walker WA. Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2001, 73(supplement):1124S-1130S
  50. Shah U, Walker WA. Food Allergy. In: Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Clinical Practice. Ed. CH Lifshitz. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001, 601-613.
  51. Bernt K, Walker WA. Human Milk and the Response of Intestinal Epithelium to Infection. In: Advances in Experimental Medical and Biology. Ed. DS Newburg, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, NY, 2001, vol. 501, 11-30.
  52. Walker WA. Development of the intestinal mucosal barrier. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr, 2002, 34:S33-S39
  53. Walker WA. Developmental issues: Physiologic factors affecting the safety and bioavailability. Nutrition Today; 2002, 37(4):174-175.
  54. Shi HN, Walker WA. Bacterial colonization in the developing gastrointestinal tract: Role in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases. In: Cross-talk between Intestinal Flora and Host. Bioscience Microflora; 2004, 23(2):55-65.
  55. Walker WA. The dynamic effects of breastfeeding on intestinal development and host defense. Adv In Exp Med Biol 2004, 554:155-170.
  56. Shi HN, Walker WA. Bacterial colonization and the development of intestinal defenses. Can J Gastroenterol 2004; 18(8):493-500.
  57. Nanthakumar NN, Walker WA. The role of bacteria in the development of intestinal protective function. In: Allergic Diseases and the Environment. Isolauri E, Walker WA (eds) . Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program 2004; 53:153-177.
  58. Walker WA. Public access to NIH biomedical research. J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2005; 40:115-116.
  59. Forchielli ML, Walker WA. The effect of protective nutrients on mucosal defense in the immature intestine. Acta Paediatrica 2005; 94(Suppl 449):74-83.
  60. Forchielli ML, Walker WA.  The effect of protective nutrients on mucosal defense in the immature intestine.  Acta Paediatrica  2005; 94(Suppl 449):74-83.
  61. Walker WA, Goulet O, Morelli L, Antione J-M.  Progress in the science of probiotics:  from cellular microbiology and applied immunology to clinical nutrition.  Eur J Nutr 2006; 45(Suppl 1):1-18.
  62. Walker, WA.  Mechanisms of action of probiotics.  Clin Infec Dis 2008; 46:S87-S91.  PMID:  18196954
  63. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg DS, Walker WA.  Immune functions and mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.  In:  Handbook of Prebiotics.  Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (eds) CRC Press.  pp. 115-141, 2008.
  64. Claud EC, Walker WA.  Bacterial colonization, probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.   In:  J Clin Gastro 2008; 42:S46-S52.  PMID:  18520617
  65. Conroy ME, Walker WA.  Intestinal immune health.  Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program 2008; vol. 62, p. 107-121 “Personalized Nutrition for the Diverse Needs of Infants and Children”.   PMID:  18626196
  66. Vassallo M, Walker WA.  Neonatal microbail flora and disease outcome.  Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatric Program 2008; 61:211-224.   PMID:  18196954
  67. Ruemmele FM, Bier D, Marteau P, Rechkemmer G, Bourdet-Sicard R, Walker WA, Goulet O.  Clinical evidence for immunomodulatory effect on probiotic bacteria.  J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2009; 48:126-141.  PMID:  19179874
  68. Rautava S, Walker WA.  Probiotics 101.  In:  Probiotics in Pediatric Medicine. Michail S, Sherman P (eds) Humana Press 2009; pp 41-52.
  69. Sherman PM, Cabana M, Gibson G, Koletzko BV, Neu J, Veereman-Wauters G, Ziegler EE, Walker WA.  Potential roles and clinical utility of prebiotics in newborns, infants, and children:  Proceeding from a Global Summit meeting in New York City, June 27-28, 2008. J Pediatrics 2009; 155:S61-S70.  PMID: 19840609 
  70. Walker WA.  Functional proteins in human milk:  Role of infant health and development.   J Pedaitr 2010; 156(2)Suppl 1:  S1-S2.  PMID: 20105658
  71. Walker WA. Breast milk as the gold standard for protective nutrients.  J Pedaitr 2010; 156(2)Suppl 1:  S3-S7.  PMID:  20105662

REVIEWS

  1. Walker WA, Hong RA. Immunology of the gastrointestinal tract. Parts I and II. J Pediatr 1973; 83:517-530, 711-720.
  2. Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ, Bloch KJ. The role of immunization on antigen uptake from the small intestine, In The Immuno Globulin A System. Adv Exp Med Biol 1974; 45:295-330.
  3. Walker WA, Isselbacher KJ. Uptake and transport of macromolecules in the intestine: Possible role in clinical disorders. Gastroenterology 1974; 67:531-550.
  4. Weiser M, LaMont JT, Walker WA. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: A defect in secretion. New Engl J Med 1975; 292:205-206.
  5. Walker WA. Immunologic mechanisms controlling macromolecules penetration in the small intestine. In: Schlessinger D, ed. Microbiology - 1975, Washington, D.C.: Amer Soc for Microbiology 1975; 158-164.
  6. 6. Walker WA. Current understanding of the immunology of the neonatal GI tract. In: Reynolds JW, Burrington JC, eds. Necrotizing Enterocolitis Columbus, Ohio, Sixty-eighth Ross Conferences on Pediatric Research, 1975;42-47.
  7. 7. Walker WA. Antigen absorption from the small intestine and gastrointestinal disease. Pediatr Clin of N.A., 1975; 22:731-736.
  8. Walker WA, Mathis RK. Hepatomegaly: An approach to the differential diagnosis. Pediatr Clin of N.A., 1975; 22:929-942.
  9. Walker WA. Host defense mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Pediatrics 1976; 57:901-916.
  10. Lake AM, Walker WA. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: A disease of altered host defense. Clin Gastroent 1977; 6:463-480.
  11. Walker WA. Immunologic protection in the gastrointestinal tract. Current Concepts Gastroent 1977; 2:6-12.
  12. Andres J, Mathis R, Walker WA. Liver disease in infants. I. Developmental hepatology and mechanisms of liver dysfunction. J Pediatr 1977; 90:686-697.
  13. Mathis R, Andres J, Walker WA. Liver disease in infants. II. Hepatic disease states. J Pediatr 1977; 90:864-880.
  14. Eastham EJ, Walker WA. The effect of cow's milk on the gastrointestinal tract: A persistent dilemma to the pediatrician. Pediatrics 1977; 60:477-481.
  15. Walker WA. Antigen handling by the gut. Arch Dis Child 1978; 53:527-531.
  16. Eastham EJ, Walker WA. Adverse effects of milk formula ingestion on the gastrointestinal tract: An update. Gastroenterology 1979;76:365-373.
  17. Walker WA, Eastham EJ. Gastrointestinal issues in milk intolerance: An update. In: Moss A, Stiehm R, eds. Pediatrics Update: Reviews for Physicians. New York: Elsevier Publishers 1979;21-38.
  18. Walker WA. Antigen penetration across the immature gut: Effect of immunologic and maurational factors in colostrum. In: Dayton D, ed. Immunology of Breast Milk, New York, Raven Press Publishers, 1979; 227-234.
  19. Cohen SA, Walker WA. Chronic nonspecific diarrhea syndrome (irritable colon of childhood). In: Gellis SD, Kagan BM, Current Pediatric Therapy, Ninth Edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co. 1980;181-182.
  20. Kleinman RE, Walker WA. The enteromammary system: An important new concept in breast milk host defense. Digest Dis Sci 1979; 24:876-882.
  21. Walker WA. Cellular and immune changes in the gastrointestinal tract in malnutrition. In: Winick, M. ed. Current Concepts in Nutrition VII. New York, John Wiley & Sons Publishers, 1980; vol. 9, 197-218.
  22. Walker WA. Host defenses of the gut. In: Lifshitz F, ed. Clinical Disorders in Pediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1980;99-119.
  23. Galler JR, Neustein MS, Walker WA. Clinicals aspects of recurrent abdominal pain in children. In: Advances in Pediatrics, L. Barness, D. Devito, G. Morrow, F. Oski and A. Rudolph, eds., Year Book Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1988; Vol. 27, p. 31-47.
  24. Walker WA. Intestinal transport of macromolecules. In: Johnson J, Christensen J, Grossman M, Jacobson ED, Shultz SG eds. Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. New York: Raven Press, Chapter 51, 1981; 1271-1289.
  25. Walker WA. Antigen uptake in the gut: Immunologic implications. Immunology Today 1981; 2:30-34.
  26. Walker WA. Benign chronic diarrhea of infancy. Pediatr Rev 1981;3:153-158.
  27. Lake AM, Kleinman RE, Walker WA. Therapeutic enteric alimentation in the pediatric patient. In: Advances in Pediatrics, L. Barness, D. Devito, G. Morrow, F. Oski and A. Rudolph, eds., Year Book Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1988; Vol.28, p. 319-339.
  28. Harmatz PR, Walker WA. Nausea and vomiting in children. In: Gellis SS, Kagan BM, eds. Current Pediatric Therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1982; 168-170.
  29. Shub MD, Walker WA; Intractable diarrhea of infancy. In: Gellis SS, Kagan BM, eds. Current Pediatric Therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1982:174-175.
  30. Walker WA. Local immunity. In: Barson S, ed. Medical Microbiology Principles and Concepts. California, Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1982; 52-63.
  31. Walker WA, Lake AM, Bloch KJ. Immunologic mechanisms of goblet cell mucus release: possible role in mucosal host defense. In: Sell K, Hanson L, eds. Mechanisms in Mucosal Immunity. New York, New York: Raven Press, 1982:331-342.
  32. Lo CW, Carter EA, Walker WA. Breath tests: principles, problems and promise. Adv Pediatr 1982; 29:105-127.
  33. Udall JN, Walker WA. The physiologic and pathologic basis for the transport of macromolecules across the intestinal tract. J Pediatr Gastroent Clin Nutr 1982; 1:295-301.
  34. Udall JN, Walker WA. Obesity in infancy and childhood. In: Rudolph A, ed. Pediatrics. New York: Appleton-Century 1982;222-225.
  35. Walker WA. Mechanisms of antigen handling by the gut. In: Challacombe SJ, Brostoff J, eds. Clinics in Immunology and Allergy. Great Britain: W.B. Saunders, Ltd., 1982;15-40.
  36. McClenathan D, Kleinman R, Walker WA. Milk allergy in infants. Perinatology- Neonatology 1982;23-28.
  37. Walker WA. Microorganism interactions with mucosal epithelium. In: Sell KW, Strober W, Hanson LA, eds. Recent Advances in Mucosal Immunity. New York, New York: Raven Press, 1982;381-387.
  38. McClenathan DT, Walker WA. Food Allergy: cow milk and other common culprits. Postgraduate Medicine, McGraw Hill Publishers, Food Allergy 1982; 17:233-239.
  39. Walker WA. Absorption of antigens and haptens. In: Chandra RK, ed. Food Intolerance. New York: Elsevier-North Holland Publishers, 1983;17-84.
  40. Udall JN, Walker WA. Immunologic function of the developing gut. In: Warshaw J, ed. Selected Topics In Developmental Medicine. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., 1983;221-238.
  41. Kleinman RE, Harmatz PR, Walker WA. Acute obstruction of the common bile duct and the hepatobillary transport of IgA and IgA immune complexes. In: Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia, Daum, R., ed. Marcel-Deker Inc., Publishers, New York, 1983; 181-188.
  42. Kleinman RE, Hendricks K, Walker WA. Committee on Nutrition: Commentary on parenteral nutrition. Pediatrics 1983; 71:547-552.
  43. Lo CW, Walker WA. Pediatric Gastroenterology. In: The Gastroenterology Annual 1, Kern F, Blur AL, eds., Elsevier Publishers, New York 1983; 432-449.
  44. Rosenthal S, Snyder UD, Hendricks K, Walker WA. Growth failure and inflammatory bowel disease: Approach to treatment of a complicated adolescent problem. Pediatrics 1983; 72:481-490.
  45. Walker WA, Bloch KJ. Gastrointestinal transport of macromolecules in the pathogenesis of food allergy. Ann Aller 1983; 51:240-245.
  46. Lo CW, Walker WA. Chronic protracted diarrhea of infancy. Pediatrics 1983; 72:786-800.
  47. McClenathan DT, Walker WA. Allergic gastroenteropathy. In: Current Therapy in Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Bayless TM, ed., Decker Inc., Publishers, Philadelphia, 1983.
  48. Dixon M, Walker WA. Therapy of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, Gellis SS, Kagan BM, eds., W.B. Saunders Co., Publishers, Philadelphia, 1984; 195-198.
  49. Kleinman RK, Walker WA. Passive enteric immunity in the newborn: An overview. In: Attachment of Microorganisms to the Gastrointestinal Mucosal Surface. Boedeker EC, ed. C.R.C. Press 1984; 199-203.
  50. Udall JN, Walker WA. Intestinal permeability in the newborn. In: Contemporary Issues In Neonatal Gastroenterology, Tanner MS, ed. Intercept Publishers, England, 1984; 93-109.
  51. Udall JN, Walker WA. Basic gastrointestinal immunology. In: Textbook of Gastroenterology, Allan RN, Hodgson HJF, Keighley MRB, eds., W.B. Saunders Co., Publishers, England, 1984; 292-298.
  52. Lo CW, Walker WA. Pediatric Gastroenterology. In: Gastroenterology Annual 2, Kern F, Blum A, eds. The Netherlands, Excerpta Medica Publishers, 1984; 320-362.
  53. Walker WA. Absorption of protein and protein fragments in the developing intestine: Role in immunologic/allergic reactions. In: Current Issues In Feeding the Infant. Pediatrics 1985; 167-171.
  54. Kleinman RE, Harmatz PR, Walker WA. Gastrointestinal immune barrier: Its role in preventing antigen penetration in the intestine. In: Mucosal Immunity for the Clinician, Shorter RG, Kirsner JB, eds. New York: Grune and Stratton Inc., Publishers, 1985; 23-33.
  55. Stern M, Walker WA: Food allergy and intolerance. Pediatr Clin NA 1985; 32:471-492.
  56. Walker WA. Local Immunity. In: Medical Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Baron S (ed), Menlo Park, CA., Addison-Wesley Co., 1985; Chap. 10, pp. 112-125.
  57. Kleinman RE, Walker WA. Antigen processing and uptake from the intestinal tract. Clin Reviews in Allergy 1985; 2:25-37.
  58. Walker WA. Antigen Handling by the small intestine. In: Clinics in Gastroenterology. 15; 1-20, 1986.
  59. Seidman E, Walker WA. Immune mechanisms in paediatric gastrointestinal and liver disease. In: Clinical Immunology of the Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract. Triger DR, (ed.). John Wiley & Sons Publishers, England 1986; 150-175.
  60. Bass DM, Walker WA. Acute and chronic non-specific diarrhea. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, 12th Edition, Gellis and Kagan (eds.) W.B. Saunders Co. Publishers, Philadelphia, 1986; pp 191.
  61. Levine J, Walker WA. Intractable diarrhea in infancy. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, 12th Edition, Gellis and Kagan (eds.) W.B.Saunders Co. Publishers, Philadelphia, 1986; pp 191-193.
  62. Proujansky R, Walker WA. Irritable bowel syndrome in childhood. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, 12th Edition, Gellis and Kagan (eds.) W.B. Saunders Co. Publishers, Philadelphia, 1986; pp 193.
  63. Walker WA. Role of the mucosal barrier in antigen handling by the gut. In: Food Allergy and Intolerances. Brostoff and Challacombe (eds.), W.B. Saunders Co., Ltd. England, 1986; pp 209-222.
  64. Walker WA, Hanson D. The mechanisms of allergic reactions and local antibody
    production in infancy. In: Nutrition for special needs in infants. Lifshitz F, (ed.) Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1986; pp 103-117.
  65. Israel E, Lo C, Walker WA. Pediatric Gastroenterology. In: Gastroenterology Annual 3. 1986; pp 487-513.
  66. Udall JN, Walker WA. Mucosal defense mechanisms. In: Immunopathology of the Small Intestine. Ed MN Marsh John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 1986; pp 3-20.
  67. Walker WA. Allergen absorption from intestine: Implication for food allergy in infants. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1986; 78:1003-1009.
  68. Seidman E, Walker WA. Gastrointestinal manifestations of primary and secondary immunodeficiency states. In: Pediatric Gastroenterology: Aspects of Immunology and Infections. Bransk, Dinari, Rozen and Walker-Smith (eds.) Karger, Basal Publications, 1986; pp 187-204.
  69. Walker WA. The principal of handling intestinal antigens. In: Pediatric Gastroenterology: Aspects of Immunology and Infections. Bransk, Dinari, Rozen and Walker-Smith (eds.) Karger, Basal Publications, 1986; pp 10-34.
  70. Wright J, Walker WA. Breast milk and host defense of the infant. In: The Theory and Practice of Nutrition in Pediatrics, Grand RJ, Sutphen JL, eds. Woburn, MA: Buttersworth Publishers, 1987; PP293-303.
  71. Snyder JD, Walker WA. Structure and function of intestinal mucin: Development aspects. Int. Archs. Allergy Applied Immunology. 1987; 82:351-356.
  72. Kleinman RE, Walker WA. Uptake and transport of macromolecules by the intestine in normal and pathological conditions. In:Spondyloarthropathes: Involvement of the Gut, H. Mielants and E.M. Veys, eds., Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division), 1987; 177-186.
  73. Gerson WT, Swan P, Walker WA. Nutrition support in cystic fibrosis. Nutr Rev, 1987; 45: 353-402.
  74. Israel EJ, Walker WA. Development of the intestinal mucosal barrier function to antigens and bacterial toxins. In: Recent Advances in Mucosal Immunology, Part A, J. Mestecky, J.R. MeChee, U. Diemesstock and P.L. Ogra. Plenum Publishing Corp., 1987; 673-683.
  75. Walker WA. Pathophysiology of intestinal uptake and absorption of antigens in food allergy. Annals of Allergy, 1987; 59:7-16.
  76. Seidman E, Walker WA. Development of the small intestine. In: Paediatric Gastroenterology, Anderson CM, Burke V, Gracey M, (eds), Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford 1987; p 118-136.
  77. Gonnella PA, Walker WA. Macromolecular absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 1987;1:235-248.
  78. Walker WA. The role of gut immunologic immaturity in neonatal food allergy. In: Food Allergy, Chandra RK, ed., Nutrition Research Education Foundation, St. John's Newfoundland, Canada, 1987;45-67.
  79. Sheard NF, Walker WA. The role of breast milk in the development of the gastrointestinal tract. Nutr Rev, 1988; 46:1-8.
  80. Proujansky R, Winter HS, Walker WA. Gastrointestinal syndromes associated with food sensitivity. In: Advances in Pediatrics, L. Barness, D. Devito, G. Morrow, F. Oski and A. Rudolph, eds., Year Book Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1988; Vol. 35, p. 219-237.
  81. Grant KE, Walker WA. Recurrent abdominal pain. In: Ambulatory Pediatric Care, R. Dershewitz, ed., J.B. Lippincott Company, New York, NY, 1988; pp. 462-466.
  82. Nurko S, Walker WA. Acute Diarrhea. In: Ambulatory Pediatric Care, R. Dershewitz, ed., d.B. Lippincott Company, New York, NY, 1988; pp. 466-472.
  83. Lencer WI, Walker WA. Malabsorption syndrome. In: Ambulatory Pediatric Care, R. Dershewitz, ed., U.B. Lippincott Company, New York, NY 1988; pp. 472-476.
  84. Berman JH, Walker WA. Constipation. In: Ambulatory Pediatric Care, R. Dershewitz, ed., U.B. Lippincott Company, New York, NY, 1988; pp. 477-481.
  85. Seidman EG, Walker WA. Gastroenterologic and Liver Disorders. In: Immunologic Disorders in Infants and Children. 3rd edition, ER Steim, ed., W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1988; Chapter 21, pp. 503-541.
  86. Wershil BK, Walker WA. Milk allergies and food allergies in children. Immunol Allergy Clin N Amer 1988;8:485-504.
  87. Hendricks KM, Walker WA. Zinc deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease. Nutr Rev, 1988; 46:401-408.
  88. Hendricks KM, Walker WA. Current issues in feeding the normal infant (editorial). Nutrition 1988; 4:476.
  89. Seidman EG, Walker WA. Intestinal defense. In: Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J. Kirsner and R. Shorter, eds., Lea Faebiger Publishers, Philadelphia, 1988; 65-74.
  90. Walker WA. Birth from the nutritional point of view: Nutrition in the postpartum period. In: Perinatal Nutrition, Academic Press, 1988.
  91. Schreiber RA, Walker WA. The gastrointestinal barrier: Antigen uptake and perinatal immunity. Annals of Allergy 1988; 61:3-12.
  92. Walker WA. Foreward. In: Clinical Nutrition in Major Paediatric Disorders. Bentley, Lawson, eds., Bailliere Tindall Ltd., London, 1988
  93. Kleinman RE, Walker WA. The development of the mucosal barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 1989; 351-355.
  94. Lo CW, Walker WA. Changes in the gastrointestinal tract when patients are fed enterally or parenterally. Nutr. Rev. 1989; 47:193-198.
  95. Nurko S, Walker WA. Eosinophilic enteritis. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatrics, F. Oski, C. DeAngelis, R. Feigin and J. Warshaw, eds., J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, PA., 1989; 1727-1730.
  96. Martin SR, Walker WA. Henoch-Schonlein syndrome. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatrics, F. Oski, C. DeAngelis, R. Feigin and J. Warshaw, eds., J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, PA., 1989; 1720-1722.
  97. Hirsch BZ, Walker WA. Protein intolerance. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatrics F. Oski, C. DeAngelis, R. Feigin and J. Warshaw, eds., D.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, PA., 1989; 1724-1727.
  98. Chu SH, Walker WA. Development of the mucosal barrier: bacterial toxin interaction with the immature enterocyte. Immunological Investigations 1989; 18:405-416.
  99. Bines J, Walker WA. Advances in inflammatory bowel disease. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 1989; 1:48-56.
  100. Russell GJ, Walker WA. The role of the intestinal mucosal barrier and antigen uptake. In: Immunology and Immunopathology of the Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract; S. Targan and F. Shanahan, eds., Igaku-Shoin Medical Publishers, Inc., New York, 1989; 15-31.
  101. Weaver LT, Walker WA. Uptake, sorting and transport of macromolecules in the neonate, and their relationship to the structure of the microvillus. In: Textbook of Gastroenterology and Nutrition In Early Childhood. 2nd Edition, E. Lebenthal, ed., Raven Press, New York, 1989; 731-748.
  102. Schreiber RA, Walker WA. Food Allergy: facts and fiction. Mayo Clin Proc 64:1381-1391, 1989.
  103. Sheard NF, Walker WA. Total parenteral nutrition in infants. In: Current Therapy In Neonatal/Perinatal Medicine. N. Nelson, ed., B.C. Decker, Philadelphia, PA 1990; pp. 9-11.
  104. Murphy SM, Walker WA. Immune system and gastrointestinal infection. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 1990; 6:130-135.
  105. Maller E, Walker WA. Disorders of the hepatobiliary tree. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, 13 Edition, S. Gellis and B. Kagan, eds., W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA., 1990; 211-214.
  106. Bousvarous A, Walker WA. The development of the intestinal mucosal barrier. In: Ontogeny of the Immune Response of the Gut; T. MacDonald, ed., CRC Press, Inc., Florida, 1990; pp. 1-21.
  107. Murphy SM, Walker WA. Celiac Disease. Pediatrics in Review, 1991; 12:325-330.
  108. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Nutrition and immunity. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 1991; 7:463-470.
  109. Walker WA. Immunology: Editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 1991; 7:418-420.
  110. Martin S, Walker WA. Responses of the colon to injury: inflammation, immunity, mucus. In: The Large Intestine: Physiology, Pathophysiology & Disease. S.F. Phillips, J.H. Pemberton, R.G. Shorter, eds., Raven Press, New York, pp 181-195.
  111. Murphy SM, Walker WA. Antigen absorption. In: Adverse Reactions to Food and Antigens: Basic Science Metcalfe, Sampson & Simon, eds., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Cambridge, MA., 1991; 52-66.
  112. Bines J, Walker WA. Growth factors and the development of neonatal host defense. In: Immunology of Milk and the Neonate Mestecky J et al, eds., Plenum Press 1991; vol 310, 31-39.
  113. Wershil B, Walker WA. Mucosal barrier, IgE-mediated events in the intestine, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Gastro Clin of N.A., 1992 21:387-404.
  114. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 1992; 8:963-966.
  115. Duggan C, Walker WA. Food Allergy. In: Practical Gastroenterology. Mayer L, (ed), Shugar Publishers, 1993; vol. XVII (Number 8), pp-12-18.
  116. Bousvarous A, Walker WA. Basic gastrointestinal immunology. In:Gastroenterology Clinical Science and Practice, 2nd Edition, Bouchier IAD, Hodgson HJF, Allan RN & Keighley, (eds.) Bailliere Tindall Publishers, London, U.K., 1993; pp. 577-582.
  117. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 1993; 9:943-945.
  118. Walker WA, Murphy SM. Development of the small intestine. In: Paediatric Gastroenterology, 3rd Edition. Gracey M, ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993; pp. 113-130.
  119. Martin S, Bross D, Walker WA. Henoch-Schonlein Syndrome. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatrics, Oski FA, DeAngelis C, Feigin RD, Warshaw JB, (eds) J.B. Lippincott, 1993; pp. 1882-1885.
  120. Duggan C, Walker WA. Protein intolerance. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatrics, Oski FA, DeAngelis C, Feigin RD, Warshaw JB, (eds) J.B. Lippincott, 1993; pp. 1887-1990.
  121. Furuta G, Walker WA. Eosinophilic enteritis. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatrics, Oski FA, DeAngelis C, Feigin RD, Warshaw JB, (eds) J.B. Lippincott, 1993; pp. 1890-1892.
  122. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Mucosal barrier. In: Handbook of Mucosal Immunology, Ogra R, J, McGhee J, Bienenstock J, Lamm M, & Strober W (eds) Academic Press, 1994; pp 41-51.
  123. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Gastrointestinal defenses to GI injury and inflammation. In: The Growth of Gastroenterologic Knowledge During the 20th Century. Kirsner JB, (ed), †Lea & Febiger Publications, 1994; pp 433-450.
  124. Kliegman RM, Walker WA, Yolken RH. Necrotizing enterocolitis: Research agenda for a disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. In: Clinics in Perinatology. Stoll BJ and Kleigman RM (eds) W.B. Saunders Company 1994; pp 437-455.
  125. Baldridge AD, Walker WA. Mucosal immunity and the development of allergy. In: Pediatric Enteral Nutrition Baker S, Baker R, (eds) Andover Medical Publishers, 1994; pp 30-45.
  126. Hardy SC, Walker WA. Anticholinergic medications in pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Pediatrics in Review; 1994 15:389-390.
  127. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 1994; 10:623-670.
  128. Bousvaros A, Stevens C, Walker WA. Intestinal host defense. In: Inflammatory Bowel Disease 4th Edition, Kirsner JB, Shorter RG, (eds), Lea and Febiger Publications, 1995; 140-161.
  129. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Uptake and transport of macromolecules by the intestine. In: Intestinal Immunology and Food Allergy, Raven Press. Ltd. New York, 1995; 19-36.
  130. Xanthou M, Bines J, Walker WA. Human milk and intestinal host defense in newborns. An update. In: Advances in Pediatrics 1995; 42:171-208.
  131. Furuta G, Walker WA. Non-immune defense mechanisms of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Blaser MJ, Smith PD, Ravdin JI, Greenberg HB, Guerrant RL, (eds), Raven Press Ltd, NY, 1995, pp. 89-98.
  132. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 1995; 11:509-511.
  133. Bousvaros A, Walker WA. Gastroenterologic and Liver Disorders. In: Immunologic Disorders in Infants and Children, Stiehm ER, (ed), W.B. Saunders Publishers, 1995; 697-741.
  134. Duggan C, Walker WA. Post viral diarrhea. In: Gastrointestinal Diseases Today 1995, 4(5):7-15.
  135. Insoft RM, Sanderson IS, Walker WA. The development of immune function within the human intestine and its role in neonatal diseases. In: Pediatric Clinics of North America 1996;43(2):551-571.
  136. Walker WA. Mucosal Immunology of the Stomach and Duodenum. In: Gastroenterology and Hepatology: The Comprehensive Visual Reference vol 3 - Stomach and Duodenum. Feldman M, (ed), Churchill Livingstone Inc., Philadelphia 1996; 3.1-3.22.
  137. Groer M, Walker WA. What is the role of a preterm breast milk supplement in the host defenses of the preterm infant? Science vs. Fiction. In: Advances in Pediatrics 1996; 43:335-358.
  138. Furuta G, Walker WA. Immunophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and the mechanisms of antigen handling by the gut In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 1996; 43:335-358.
  139. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 1996; 12:551-553.
  140. Murphy MS, Walker WA. Antigen uptake. In: Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Food and Food Additives Metcalf D. (ed), Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, 1996; Chapter 5, 93-106.
  141. Fusunyan RD, Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 1997, 13(6):491-493.
  142. Furlano R, Walker WA. Immaturity of gastrointestinal host defense in newborns and gastrointestinal disease states. Adv In Pediatrics, 1998; 45:201-222.
  143. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Mucosal barrier: An overview. In: Mucosal Immunology Textbook. pp. 5-17.
  144. Dai D, Walker, WA. Protective nutrients and bacterial colonization in the immature human gut. In: Advances In Pediatrics. 1999; 6:353-382.
  145. Spiekermann G, Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, 1998, 14(6): 473-475.
  146. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Immune-epithelial cell interactions. In: Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Fifth Edition Kirsner, JB, Hanauer, SB (eds). 1998, Chapter 6, pp. 65-73.
  147. Baldeon M, Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 1999; 15(6):521-522.
  148. Shah U, Walker WA. Allergic gastrointestinal disorders. In: Current Pediatric Therapy, 16 Edition, S. Gellis and B. Kagan, eds., W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA., 1999; 1041-1042
  149. Walker WA. What is the role of nucleotides and polyamines in breast milk? Acta Paediatrica, 1999, 88(12):1313-1315.
  150. Shah U, Walker WA. Adverse host responses to bacterial toxin in the human infant. J Nutr. 2000; 130:420S-425S.
  151. King JC, Black RE, Doyle MP, Fitsche KL, Halbrook BH, Levander OA, Meydani SN, Walker WA, Woteki CE. Foodborne illnesses and nutritional status: A statement from and American Society for Nutritional Working Group. J Nutr 2000; 130(10): 2613-2617.
  152. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2000; 16(6)527-530.
  153. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2001; 17(6):541-544.
  154. Teitelbaum JE, Walker WA. Nutritional impact of pre- and probiotics as protective gastrointestinal organisms. Annu Rev Nutr 2002; 22:107-138.
  155. Duggan, Walker WA. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Clin Nutr 2002, 75:789-808.
  156. Shah U, Walker WA. Pathophysiology of Intestinal Food Allergy. Advances in Pediatrics. 2002; 49:299-316.
  157. Teitelbuam JE, Walker WA. Nutritional impact of pre- and probiotics as protective gastrointestinal organisms. Ann Rev Nutr 2002; 22:107-138.
  158. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Role of the mucosal barrier in antigen handling by the gut. In: Food Allergy and Intolerances 2nd edition. Brostoff and Challacombe (eds.) 2002, pp. 219-230.
  159. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2002; 18(6):688-690.
  160. 160. Shi HN, Walker WA. T helper cell subclasses and clinical diseases states. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2002; 18(6):711-716.
  161. Walker, WA. Innovative teaching strategies for training physicians in clinical
    nutrition: An overview. J Nutr 2003; 133(2), 541S-572S
  162. Cherayil BJ, Walker WA. Ontogeny of the host response to enteric microbial infection. In: Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell, Hecht G, (ed), ASM Press, 2003; pp. 333-349.
  163. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2003; 19(6):557-558.
  164. Forchielli ML, Walker WA. Nutritional factors contributing to the development of cholestasis during total parenteral nutrition. Adv in Pediatrics 2003; vol. 50, pp.245-267.
  165. Teitelbaum JE, Walker WA. Inflammatory bowel disease: malnutrition and
    maldigestion. Up-To-Date in GI/Hepatology 2004.
  166. Russell GJ, Bousvaros A, Walker WA. Gastroenterologic and liver disorders. In: Immunologic Disorders in Infants & Children. Stiehm RE, Ochs HD, Winkelstein JA (eds), Elsevier/Saunders 2004; pp. 1055-1102.
  167. Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2004; 20(6):556-559.
  168. Rhee SJ, Walker WA. Mucosal immunity. In: Pediatric Nutrition Support. Baker R, Baker S, Davis AM (eds), Jones and Bartlett Publishers 2004; (in press).
  169. Kalliomaki M, Walker WA. Physiologic and pathologic interactins of bacteria with gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastro Clin NA 2005; 34:383-399.
  170. Chen CC, Walker WA. Probiotics and prebiotics: Role in clinical disease states. Adv in Ped 2005; 52:77-113.
  171. Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Immunology: editorial overview. Current Opinion
    in Gastroenterology 2005; 21(6): 684-686.
  172. Teitelbaum JE, Walker WA. The development of mucosal immunity. Eur J Gastroenterol & Hepatol 2005; 17(12):1273-1278.
  173. Broekaert IJ, Walker WA. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body. Nutrition Today 2005; (in press).
  174. Walker WA, Donovan SM. Preface from the 25th Anniversary Symposium of the Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Freedom to Discover Nutrition Research Grant and Awards Program.  J Pediatrics  2006; 149(suppl3):S47-S48
  175. Weng M, Walker WA.  Bacterial colonization, probiotics and clinical disease.  Proceedings from the 25th Anniversary Symposium of the Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Freedom to Discover Nutrition Research Grant and Awards Program.  J Pediatrics 2006; 149(suppl3):S107-S114.
  176. Walker WA.  Ontogeny of gut immunity and neonatal diseases.  J Adv Nutr 2006; 3:4-8
  177. Walker-Smith J, Walker WA.  The development of pediatric gastroenterology.  In:  The American Pediatric Society History of Pediatric Subspecialties.  L. Finberg, ER Stiehm (eds).  Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2006; pp.  155-172.
  178. Rhee SJ, Ogra R, Walker WA.  Mucosal immunity. In:  Pediatric Nutrition Support.  Baker R, Baker S, Davis AM (eds), Jones and Bartlett Publishers 2006; pp. 29-43.
  179. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2006; 22(6): 641-643.
  180. Sanderson IR, Walker WA.  The role of TLRs/Nods in intestinal development and homeostasis.  Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 292:G6-G10.
  181. Martin CR, Walker WA.  Intestinal immune defences and the inflammatory response in necrotizing enterocolitis.  Seminar in Fetal & Neonatal Med 2007; 11:369-377.
  182. Newburg DS, Walker WA.  Protection of the neonate by the immune system of developing gut and of human milk.  Ped Res 2007; 61:2-8.
  183. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2007; 23(6): 644-646.
  184. Rautava S, Walker WA.  Commensal bacteria and epithelial cross talk in the developing intestine.  Current Gastroenterology Reports 2007; 9:385-393.
  185. Martin CR, Walker WA.  Probiotics:  Role in pathophysiology and prevention in necrotizing enterocolitis.   Seminar in Perinatology 2008; 32:127-137.  PMID:  18346537
  186. Claud EC, Walker WA.  The intestinal microbiota and the microbiome.  In Gastroenterology:  Neonatology Questions and controversies.  Ed.  Josef Neu, Richard Polin.  Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.  2008, pp.73-92.
  187. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2008; 24(6): 698-700.  PMID:  19122518
  188. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg D, Walker WA.  Part I – Prebiotics: New medicines for the colon.  Nutr Today 2008; 43(6):245-249.
  189. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Newburg D, Walker WA.  Part II– Prebiotics:  Health benefits for the colon.  Nutr Today 2008 2008; 44(2):85-91.
  190. Rautava S, Walker WA.  Breatfeeding – An extrauterine link between mother and child.  Breastfeeding Medicine 2009; 4(1):3-10.  PMID:  19292608; PMCID:  PMC2932545
  191. Conroy ME, Shi HN, Walker WA.  The long-term health effects of neonatal microbial flora.  Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009; 9:197-201.  PMID:  19398905
  192. Floch MH, Walker WA, Guandalini S, et al.   Recommendation for probiotics use - 2008.  J Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 42(Suppl 2):S104-S108.  PMID:  18542033
  193. Walker WA.  Bacterial colonization, probiotics and the development of intestinal host defense.   Functional Food Reviews vol. 1(1), Spring 2009; 13-19.
  194. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2009; 25(6): 491-495.
  195. Walker WA, Sherman P, Shneider BL, Cohen, M, Barnard J.  State of research in pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition:  2010 and beyond. Gastroenterology 2010; 138:411-416.  PMID:  20025876
  196. Gareau MG Sherman PM, Walker WA.  Probiotics and the gut microbiota in intestinal health and disease.  Nature Rev: Gastroenterol & Hepatol 2010; 7:503-514.  PMID: 20664519
  197. Szajewska H, Guandalini S, Morelli L, Van Goudoever JB, Walker WA.  Effect of Bifidobacterium aimalis supsp lactis Supplementation in preterm infants: A systematic review of randoizedcontrolled tirals.  J Pediatr Gastro Nutr 2010; 51(2):203-209. PMID:  20543719
  198. Walker WA.  50 years ago in the Journal of Pediatrics – (Diseases of nutrition deficiency of children in South India – A review of some salient conditions (Gopalan C., J. Pediatr 1960; 57:89-100).  J Pediatr 2010; 157:126.
  199. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2010; 26(6)543-546.
  200. Claud EC, Walker WA.  Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.  In:  Probiotics:  A Clinical Guide (eds) Floch M, Kim AS. Slack Inc. 2010; Chapter 12, pp. 181-194.
  201. Neu J, Walker WA.  Necrotizing enterocolitis.  N Engl J Med 2011; 364:255-264
  202. Kaplan JL, Shi H, Walker WA.  The role of microbes in developmental immunologic programming: Convergence of the Barker and Hygiene Hygiene Hypotheses.   Pediatr Res 2011, 9(6):465-472.
  203. Chen CC, Walker WA.  Clinical applicatins of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders in children.  Natl Med J India 2011; 24(3):21-27.
  204. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2010; 27(6):543-536.
  205. Forchielli L, Walker WA.  Omega-3-fatty acids:  Impact on cognitive development and inflammation.  Nutrition Today 2011; 46(5):224-233.
  206. Walker WA.  Immunology:  editorial overview. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2011; 27(6):493-495
  207. Martin CR, Walker WA.  Innate and mucosal immunity in the developing GI
    tract:  Relationship to early and later disease.  In:  Gleason & Devaskar:  Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn (9th ed). Elsevier/Saunders 2011; pp. 994-1006.
  208. Ganguli K, Walker WA.  Probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Clin Gastroenterology 2011; 45:S133-S138.
  209. Heintz K, Walker WA.  Protective nutrients:  Are they here to stay? Nutrition Today 2011(in press).

BOOKS AND MONOGRAPHS

  1. Gastrointestinal Problems of the Infant. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982, eds. Gryboksy J, Walker WA.
  2. Practical Pediatric Gastroenterology. Butterworth & Co., (Publishers) Ltd, London, 1983, eds. Walker-Smith J, Hamilton R, Walker WA.
  3. Nutrition In Pediatrics - Basic Science and Clinical Aspects. Little Brown and Co., Boston, 1985, eds. Walker WA, Watkins J.
  4. Manual of Pediatric Nutrition. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, eds. Walker WA and Hendricks KM.
  5. Common Problems in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, Ill, 1989, eds. Snyder J and Walker WA.
  6. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease. B.C. Decker Inc., Philadelphia, 1990, eds. Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR, Walker-Smith, JA and Watkins JB.
  7. Pocket Manual of Pediatric Nutrition (2nd Edition). B.C. Decker, Ontario, Canada, 1990; eds. Hendricks, KM and Walker WA.
  8. Immunophysiology of the Gut. Academic Press, San Diego, CA 1993, eds. Walker WA, Wershil B, and Harmatz PR.
  9. Practical Pediatric Gastroenterology (2nd Edition). BC Decker (Publishers), Ontario, Canada, 1996, eds. Walker-Smith J, Hamilton R, Walker WA.
  10. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management (2nd Edition). Mosby Year Book Inc., Philadelphia, 1996, eds. Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR, Walker-Smith, JA and Watkins JB.
  11. Nutrition In Pediatrics - Basic Science and Clinical Aspects (2nd Edition). BC Decker, 1996 eds. Walker WA, Watkins J.
  12. Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract. BC Decker, 1999 eds. Sanderson IR, Walker WA.
  13. Pocket Manual of Pediatric Nutrition (3rd Edition). B.C. Decker, Ontario, Canada, 2000 eds. Hendricks KM, Duggan C, Walker WA.
  14. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management (3rd Edition). Mosby Year Book Inc., Philadelphia, 2000, eds. Walker WA, Durie PR, Hamilton JR, Walker-Smith, JA and Watkins JB.
  15. Nutrition In Pediatrics - Basic Science and Clinical Aspects (3rd Edition). BC Decker Publisher Inc., 2003 eds. Walker WA, Watkins J, Duggan C.
  16. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management (4th Edition). BC Decker Publishers Inc., Ontario, Canada, 2004, eds. Walker WA, Goulet O, Kleinman RE, Sanderson IR, Sherman P, Shneider B.
  17. A Concise History of Pediatric Gastroetnerology. Bladon Medical Publishers, Oxfordshire, England, 2004, eds. Walker-Smith JA and Walker WA.
  18. Eat, Play and Be Healthy, The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating for Kids McGraw Hill 2005. Walker, WA, Humphries C.
  19. Review of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease and Nutrition.  BC Decker Publisher Inc. 2005 eds. Huang J, Walker WA.
  20. The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating During Pregnancy, McGraw Hill 2006.  Walker, WA, Humphries C.
  21. Nutrition In Pediatrics - Basic Science and Clinical Aspects (4th Edition). BC Decker Publisher Inc., 2008 eds. Duggan C, Watkins J, Walker WA,

ABSTRACTS (2000 – present)

* Presented at Subspecialty Sessions at National Meetings
** Presented at Plenary Sessions at National Meetings

  1. * Dai D, Nanthakumar NN, Newburg DS, Walker WA. Effect of the indigenous microflora on the development of intestinal glycosyltransferases in mice. FASEB 2000; 14:A364.
  2. * Klopcic CE, Psendorfer P, Fernandez I, Chen J, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. Characterization of the developing human jejunal and ileal xenograft in vivo using disaccharidases as markers. Gastroenterology 2002; 118:1625.
  3. * Fusunyan RD, Nanthakumar NN, Walker WA. Toll receptors: A novel mechanism for intestinal microbial-host interaction. JPGN 2001; 31(Suppl2):S45.
  4. * Dai D, Nanthakumar NN, Newburg DS, Walker, WA. Expression of A2,6-silyltransferase in the mouse developing intestine. JPGN 2001; 31(Suppl 2):S184
  5. * Nanthakumar NN, Spellmeyer KM, Moiduddin N, Walker WA. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences IL-1 ñ mediated chemokine induction in developing human intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology 2002; 122:S956.
  6. * Nanthakumar NN, Walker WA. The human intestinal xenograft model to study functional development of premature infant gut: Role of glucocorticoids. Gastroenterology 2002; 122:S952.
  7. Savidge TC, Newman P, Pan W-H, McCormick B, Quaroni A, Walker WA.
    Lipopolysaccharide induces a toll-like 4 independent cross-tolerance to proinflammatory cytokines in human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 2003; 124:A45.
  8. Lu L, Walker WA. An age-dependent differential cellular response to cholera toxin in human enterocytes. Gastroenterology 2003; 124:A276.
  9. Young C, Ko J-S, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. The developing intestinal epithelial response to pro-inflammatory stimuli is in part modulated by specific components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Gastroenterology 2003; 124:A768.
  10. Meng D, Dai D, Newburg DS, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. The role of microflora on the functional development of the murine gut. Gastroenterology 2003; 124:A743.
  11. Lu L, Baldeon ME, Walker WA. An age-related enhanced secretory response to cholera toxin in rat and human intestinal mucosa xenografts. Gastroenterology 2003; 124:A146.
  12. Ko JS, Hass M, Scheidler L, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. Lactobacillus prevents the invasion and inflammatory response cause by Salmonella infection in the human intestine. Gastroenterology 2004; 126:M1080.
  13. Hass M, Scheidler L, Ko JS, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. Blood group B
    specific glycoconjugates are necessary for invasion by Salmonella typhimurium in human intestine epithelium. Gastroenterology 2004; 126:M1062.
  14. Ko JS, Hass M, Prajapathi S, Broekaert I, Walker WA, Nanthakumar N. The probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum affects adhesion, invasion and the inflammatory response during infection by human enteric pathogens. Gastroenterology 2005; 128:A102.
  15. Meng D, Young C, Newburg DS, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. The presence of bacteria in the gut lumen is necessary for the regulation of glycoconjugate receptors for bacterial colonization. Gastroenterology 2005; 128:A463.
  16. Hass M, Broekaert I, Newburg DS, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. Glycoconjugate specificity of salmonella typhimurium infection in human intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology 2005; 128:S1336.
  17. Chen C-C, Louie S, Shi HN, Walker WA. Precolonization with the probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus early in life effectively inhibit murine citrobacter rodentium colitis. Gastroenterology 2005; 128:A618.
  18. Lu L, Walker WA. Hydrocortisone modulate an age-dependent cholera toxin-response by regulating the developmental endocytosis in immature human enterocytes. Gastroenterology 2006.
  19. Weng M, Walker WA, Sanderson, IR. Butyrate up-regulates bacterial lipoprotein stimulation of the NFkB inhibitor, A20, in intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 2006.
  20. Meng, D, Newburg DS, Young CA, Baker A, Tonkongy SL, Balfour SR, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN. Bacterial symbiotics induce their fucosylated niche in mammalian gut via a TLR-4 sentinel activating ERK and JNK signaling. Gastroenterology 2006.
  21. Broekaert IJ, Nanthakumar NN, Walker WA. Enteropathogenic infection in a human enterocyte zinc deficiency model is modulated by probiotic factor(s). Gastroenterology 2006.
  22. Meng D, Zhu W, Zhang K, Pillai R, Baker A, Martyn S, Walker WA, Nanthakumar N.  Commensal bacteria promote recovery for DSS colitis by inducing Mip2-dependent neutrophil recruitment.  Gastroenterology 2007; 132:A534.
  23. Meng D, Newburg DS, Young CA, Baker A, Tonkonogy SL, Sartor RB, Walker
    WA, Nanthakumar N.  Bacterial symbionts induce their fucosylated niche in mammalian colon via a TLR-4 sentinel activating ERK and Jnk signaling.   Gastroenterology 2007; 132:A535.
  24. Nanthakumar N, Theva M, Shivakoti R, Meng D, Newburg DS, Walker WASalmonella thyphimurium utilizes a mannosyl epitope for infecting epithelial cells and a fucoysl epitope for infecting lymphoid cells in the pathogenesis of Salmonellosis.  Gastroenterology 2007; 132:A712.
  25. Shivakoti R, Theva M, Meng D, Walker WA, Nanthakumar NN.  Salmonella typhimurium  bind specific glycoconjugate receptors on human epithelium during infection.  FASEBJ 2007; 21:A587.
  26. Dubert-Ferrandon A, Nanthakumar N, Rautava S, Lu L, Walker WA, David
    Newburg.  Direct immuno-modulatory properties of galacto-oligosaccharides in TNFA mediated inflammation in human intestinal epithelial cells. 2008.
  27. Rautava S, Nanthakumar N, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Lu L, Walker WA.  Breast
  28. milk transforming growth factor-β2 attenuates inflammatory responses in immature human intestinal epithelial cells by inhibiting the ERK pathway through a SMAD6-depeendent mechanism. 2008
  29. Meng D, Zhu W, Walker WA, Nanthakumar N.  Colonization-dependent colonic fucosylation is mediated by gram negative bacteria via activation of a novel fucosylated TLR4.  Gastroenterology 2010; 136A.

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