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Dental Pits

Dental pits are pits in the enamel of the permanent teeth. They occur more frequently in individuals with TSC than in people who do not have TSC.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
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DNA is made up of molecules that encode all the instructions necessary for a living organism to grow. Two long strands of DNA make up the familiar spiral-shaped double helix.


Dermabrasion is a surgical procedure in which the physician uses a sanding device to remove the top layer of skin. Dermabrasion is typically used to treat scars and other skin imperfections.


A dermatologist is a physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of skin conditions and disorders.

Developmental Pediatrician

A developmental pediatrician is a physician who addresses the special needs or special care issues of children with developmental disorders such as TSC.


Dialysis is a medical treatment to remove excess fluid and waste from the body after the kidneys no longer function or have been removed.


See Deoxyribonucleic Acid.


See Electrocardiogram.


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An echocardiogram is a high-resolution form of ultrasound used to view the heart.


See Electroencephalogram.


See Electrocardiogram.

Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)

An electrocardiogram is a noninvasive procedure that measures the heart's electrical activity.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An electroencephalogram is a noninvasive procedure to chart electrical impulses of the brain. An EEG is used to help locate the origins of seizures.


Embolization is a type of treatment that involves cutting off the flow of blood that feeds a growing tumor, causing the tumor to regress.


Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by disturbances of brain function called seizures.

Facial Angiofibroma

Facial Angiofibroma
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A facial angiofibroma is a small reddish spot or bump that consists of fibrous tissue and blood vessels. They are most commonly found around the nose, cheeks, and chin, often combining to form a distinctive butterfly-shaped pattern. Previously known as adenoma sebaceum.

Foramen of Monro

The foramen of Monro is a narrow passage that carries spinal fluid between the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle of the brain.

Forehead Plaque

Forehead Plaque
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Similar to a shagreen patch, a forehead plaque is a fibrous, flesh-colored patch raised above the surface of surrounding skin. They arise on the forehead or scalp and vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.


Funduscopy is an examination of the eye using an ophthalmoscope, a lighted instrument used to view the inner eye including the retina and optic nerve. Also called ophthalmoscopy.

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This content was last reviewed on March 30, 2006.